Talking Cures
Because Pain illness and fatigue are destructive to our
Health, Wealth and Well being...

 Ageing Explored Explained Understood.

Nothing is what is Seems. 

It is now July 2017 and the evidence presented daily through the multitude of different opinion media outlets - many of the them from: Medical Sciense, Medical Researchers Professors of Medicine and Doctors of all specialties including: Patients, Patient Forums and Support Groups, illness support Charities relating to illness of all descriptions or diagnoses - is suggesting there is a Pandemic Failure of all treatments to address Mental illness or Biological illness or a combination of both.

As or more importantly the evidence appears to suggest. NO one EVER asks WHY.

One may term this as hiding from the truth as we all appear to do - when mysterious illness strikes.

This Paper is as much of what is reasonable to consider - as it is a matter of fact...

It is also combined information from Wikipedia and a number of professional sources.

Therefore it may contain a number of repeats - giving rise to different opinions and or conflicting information; perhaps therefore,

this particular medical experiment that may well lead to Understanding the many mysterious and distressing symptoms, thus demands such scrutiny.

Moreover, for a Medically qualified Person considered as. Anecdotal - a posh word for storytelling.

If in reading this paper my writing appears to be like a foreign language or even rambling.

Consider reading this paper - not as a book; take some time to comprehend the contents.

Where I would like to think and feel sure, it will make sense?

So often, we read or hear in detail. "What" (description or symptoms) of an illness - but rarely if ever does anyone take the time to truly explain...

"...WHY," or how it is really caused...

...this paper is designed to answer many of the questions - we are so often left with.

Where many times we have the questions and no answers - or the answers and not the questions.

If I have unwittingly left anything out or not satisfactorily answered, please email (address at the end of this page) and I will include it in this Paper at the earliest opportunity.

Please include item number or a copy and paste if possible - of the item that is not clear.

Did we not all struggle as a Child to learn many things we now through the experience of life - are now extremely competent with.

No apology if offered if discussions are repeated within this paper.

The understanding for this, nothing is more repeating than illness that is there every day of one's life and - despite treatments not only does not get better or have a satisfactory explanation/understanding...

Moreover often becomes worse, as Medical Science continues to write Scientifically Proven Papers about illness; in a confusing, repeating strange to many language/words or description in a manner that confuses everyone - and ultimately even themselves!

The first thing in the process of answering this is, for any one suffering, it is clear...

"...New understandings are required about illness..."

Far too many times I have heard from People. "If Doctors cannot Cure me how can a Person not medically qualified."‏

...making it appear the existing quality medical education is the same worldwide?..

...Non-existent.

If on reading this or any of Talking Cures understanding of illness one gets the impression...

....I am angry...

...then please believe it; because in 2017. People are not only not recovering from any illness - so often the treatments make them worse and no one knows why or it appears. Cares.

One could also be forgiven for thinking I am against:

1. Doctors.

2. The Medical Profession.

3. Medical Science.

4. Medical Researchers.

5. Alternative Medicine.

6. Complimentary medicine.

7. Religion.

The reality is I am a staunch supporter of any Person or Institution that helps People through tough emotional and physical concerns.

I am I confess most seriously against Bad Medical Science that has never once in real terms demonstrated the cause is truly known of any illness and as a result created a cure...

= ...no more illness and no more medications.

From Talking Cures point of view and therapeutic practice - names of illness especially Medically Diagnosed recognised and Scientifically proven, are of no real value in the understanding and treatment of any illness - the only Name we should use or symptom we may label is...

"A Person is unable to achieve a Healthy and satisfactory lifestyle...”

...Or never allowed to become the Person they should have been...

Thus requires. “Specialised assistance,” in order to make sense of the presenting symptoms, the cause and reason for them - enabling automatic resolution via the Persons own immune systems and Body replication process - referred to as, the Entire Body Chemistry. 

...Surely if a Person cannot be in control of self-repair when can they be in control!

To a trained Medical Mind these questions and answer updates may well appear or feel patronising - it is hoped not, as their structure is at the very. "Heart" of the success of Talking Cures as a therapeutic application and may well be a serious asset and improvement in Medical Treatment outcome success.

In order to fully appreciate this, it is helpful to consider and accept;

All of the information as to why a Person became ill in the first place and as a consequence - all of the information required for them to automatically create immune response repair is - not only contained within the confines of their Mind - it is the only information required to bring about the required Automatic Cure using their own immune systems and Body replication processes. As designed by the Mind and Body.

By creating very cleverly constructed questions - Knowing the Person is able to answer them with their own knowledge of themselves of which they are a Master and if they are unable to with my interpretations, accepted as re-education of their own information, that continues/completes on an ongoing bases; the process either returning to well-health or well-health for the very first time in their lives.

Based on the secure knowledge. "The only Person with the Integrity and Wisdom to fully Understand their illness and its cause - is the Person themselves."

There are most serious considerations as to why this process as with all illness treatment interventions - appears not to succeed...

...when the Protection created in response to early Childhood Emotional and or Physical traumas is so great the Person is unable to see the Protection and therefore unable to lower the Protection - allowing a Person to observe in a safe therapeutic environment the cause and consequences of such Protection, is the only safe way to resolve illness.

And. As a result, to gently - if one dare uses such words, lower the Protection, which will allow an immune response and an automatic alteration in ones thinking process, leading to a natural life - with comfort of Mind and Body.

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These explanations are from a collection of Scientifically Proven papers in the public domain and discussion forums and are in a Question and Answer forum style.

It is important to accept I am both the Questioner, on behalf of interested Person's - as well as the Person supplying the Answers, or Responding thus in many ways, my own best critic.

Leaving one to choose the Questions and Answers that are important for a better or individual understanding of this seemingly mysterious Biological and Human Mind concerns.

Furthermore it is imperative one recognises; I have no medical qualifications to make such assertions as contained within my answers.

This should leave one in no doubt - it is only written because the entire medical profession since its creation, have never once produced a cure for any illness.

A life time of medication - is not to be considered a cure, only management of an ever changing and most times ever growing list of symptoms and medications.

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Question. 1: Given the understanding you have no medical qualifications - are you able to explain how you can present this information regarding perhaps an illness you have no real prior knowledge of; in the way that you seem very able and comfortable with?

Answer. 1: Good question and thank you.

A. First may we understand it is the ability to work - using only the Persons Mind, with as many and constantly changing set of symptoms a Person is able to present; is at the very foundation from which I work.

B. My understanding and acceptance - everyone in the Medical Profession is doing the very best they are able with Management techniques, yet fail to truly comprehend the enormity of the constantly repeated statement. "Of the 100,000 illness recognised and diagnosed," still in mid 2017 there is not one definitive cure for any illness.

C. Thus I start from a piece of information where a Person - say on Facebook or LinkedIn posts a question about an illness or from a Television or big screen Film I collect from the available sources, as much information as I am able, regarding the latest information known about the illness.

D. I then create a new web page and copy and past the information into the page.

E. From here I start the edit process of this information - yet do not attempt to understand it, in much the same way a Person with the illness may in pursuit of answers and questions.

F. Part of the edit process is to convert words that appear are used only to confuse - by research many medical publications or dictionaries, into a readable format, by providing the meaning of the word. This sometimes proves to be quite a time consuming task.

G. I then go through every word and edit out the grammatical parts that I feel could read better IE. Don't = do not. Doesn't = does not or isn't = is not and at the same time remove most reference to the First Parson. "You," then apply reference numbers to each sentence as well as colour highlights in Red or Blue of information I feel deserves such treatment.

H. Finely - once the page is in a presentable format. I then start to comprehend the enormity of the message and make responses as required, ending with why Talking Cures feels or has proven if only to my own satisfaction, how the illness is caused.

I. Once the creation process is complete I use a number of ways to spell check the entire document - often confused by different ways of spelling the word from country to country.

J. Some forty to sixty hours later, or more depending on the amount of information - having read the document more times than I am able to count. having finely checked for best level of continuity. I take the decision it is ready to publish free of any sign up - no collection of saleable contact information or fees for all to use at their desire, or discretion.

1. After all of this there are still times when an error jumps out at me.

2. Usually at this time with a final read/edit - I am reminded; I have no Medical Qualifications and often breath a sigh of relief and work to these principles...  Click on Link. 

Talking Cures Standards & Priorities

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Section. 1.

Ageing Explored Explained Understood?

Courtesy of Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia:

This article is about making 2017 sense of this Scientifically evaluated Biological Process, using perhaps for the first time in history...

THE MIND.

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Section. 2.



Ageing or Aging, is the process of becoming older.

Item 1. The term refers especially to Human beings, many animals and fungi, whereas for example bacteria, perennial plants and some simple animals are potentially immortal.

Item 2. In the broader sense, Ageing can refer to single cells within an organism which have ceased dividing, named  - cellular senescence or to the population of a species - population Ageing.

Item 3. In Humans, Ageing represents the accumulation of changes in a Human being over time, encompassing physical, psychological and social changes.

Item 4. Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand.

Item 5. Ageing is among the greatest known risk factors for most Human diseases: of the roughly 150,000 People who die each day across the globe, about two thirds die from age-related causes.

Item 6. The causes of Ageing are uncertain; current theories are assigned to the damage concept, whereby the accumulation of damage - such as DNA oxidation may cause biological systems to fail, or to the programmed Ageing concept, whereby internal processes - such as DNA methylation may cause Ageing.

Item 7. Programmed Ageing should not be confused with programmed cell death - apoptosis.

Item 8. The discovery, in 1934, that calorie restriction can extend lifespan by 50% in rats has motivated research into delaying and preventing Ageing.

Conclusion...

A. There is sufficient information in this section to write a PhD Thesis and a Dissertation.

B...

1. Item 3, says it all; We can accept - Ageing represents the accumulation of changes in a Human being over time, encompassing physical.  

2. Not so easy with "psychological and social changes;" as surely these are nothing to do with Ageing - they are an acquisition through life experience.

C...

1. Item 5. Is it not typical of Medial Science to with great aplomb scientifically demonstrate; "Ageing is among the greatest known risk factors for most Human diseases and about two thirds die from age-related causes."

2. Then add to it. Item 6.  "The causes of Ageing are uncertain." Surely. No one ever dies of just getting old - they die of long-term medical inability to deal with the many and ever changing symptoms created by the very medications required to manage poorly the Person's symptoms.

D...

1. The scientific information in Item 6, above; "such as DNA oxidation may cause biological systems to fail, whereby internal processes - such as DNA methylation may cause Ageing. says it all.

2. These are not part of the process of Ageing that are as a result of the working copy of the Genetic Cells being constantly altered by the activity  of the Mind.  

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Section 3.

Item 1. Human beings and members of other species, especially animals, necessarily experience Ageing and Mortality. Fungi, too, can age.

Item 2. In contrast, many species can be considered immortal: for example, bacteria fission to produce daughter cells, strawberry plants grow runners to produce clones of themselves and animals in the genus Hydra have a regenerative ability by which they avoid dying of old age.

Item 3. Early life forms on Earth, starting at least 3.7 billion years ago, were single-celled organisms.

item 4. Such organisms - prokaryotes, protozoans and algae multiply by fissioning into daughter cells; thus do not age and are innately immortal.

Item 5. Ageing and mortality of the individual organism became possible with the evolution of sexual reproduction, which occurred with the emergence of the fungal/animal kingdoms approximately a billion years ago and the evolution of flowering plants 160 million years ago.

Item 6. The sexual organism could henceforth pass on some of its genetic material to produce new individuals and could itself become disposable with respect to the survival of its species.

Item 7. This classic biological idea has however been perturbed recently by the discovery that the bacterium E. coli may split into distinguishable daughter cells, which opens the theoretical possibility of "age classes," among bacteria.

Item 8. Even within Humans and other mortal species, there are cells with the potential for immortality: Cancer cells which have lost the ability to die when maintained in a cell culture such as the HeLa cell line and specific stem cells such as germ cells - producing ova and spermatozoa.

Item 9. In artificial cloning, adult cells can be rejuvenated to embryonic status and then used to grow a new tissue or animal without Ageing.

Item 10. Normal Human cells however die after about 50 cell divisions in laboratory culture - the Hayflick Limit, discovered by Leonard Hayflick in 1961.

Conclusion...

A. Is it worthy of a consideration as Item 2 demonstrates. Medial Sciense is somewhat getting ahead of itself. When two life producing cells mate - surely they are in part making independent self sufficient clones of themselves - this makes the donors Mortal not Immortal.

B. Is not Item 5 a little bit Darwinian in its proclamation. Early life may well have been a Single Cell - leaving one to question what happened in the evolution that we not call Living reproducing cells in the 2.7 Billion years prior to the; 1 Billion and 160 millions years mentioned.

C. What we Humans refer to as the sexual organs Item 6. May well have developed only 160 million years ago - surely this was only an evolution change having at last demonstrated itself; thus does not mean, there was no reproduction organs prior to this time.

D...

1.  I am always deeply saddened when I read from Medical Science Item 7; "theoretical possibility of "age classes," among bacteria."

2. This is surely only a demonstration of Laboratory Guesswork - thus there must be the possibility the Bacteria they speak of is no more than life itself and not the problem it is made out to be and if inside a living organism - an expression of the entire body chemistry. For if in a dish it does not squiggle; it is surely dead.

E...

1. Item 8; suggests; "Cancer cells which have lost the ability to die when maintained in a cell culture."

2. Is this not the same as a Heart when removed from a body will once piped up and filled will pump independently of the body brain or Mind.

3. Thus. Cancers Cells are not doing something wrong; they are working on instructions from the Mind - therefor once removed from the Body and fed; as no one has issued the cells with different information, will, like the Heart have a life of their own. Just as it did in the Body.  

F.  When one examines Item 9 and accepts it is; "Artificial Cloning," is one not reminded of Dolly the Sheep cloned from the Mother that aged so rapidly it died of unrelated to the cloning - disorders. 

1. Death. July 1996>14th February 2003.

2. Throughout her life, Dolly was under scrutiny.

3. She seemed like a normal sheep and gave birth to normal lambs starting with Bonnie in 1998.

4. Yet her telomeres - the ends of chromosomes whose length is linked to aging - were short, reflecting her cell line origins. 

5. In 2001, she developed Arthritis.

6. Scientists agreed it was probably a side-effect of cloning, although it could be partly explained by the fact that Dolly was kept indoors most of her life.

7. In 2003, she contracted jaagsiekte, a virus-caused ovine lung cancer and was put down at the age of six.

8. While this is young for a sheep, her death of infectious disease appeared unrelated to cloning.

9.  Is not Medical Sciense somewhat deluding itself with this research or is it just another case of Fraudulent Research as reported by the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine over the past few years.

A. For many years now I have had the understanding and worked with the Gestation of illness process. Meaning from creation depending on the severity of the traumatic event and the Childs perception of it - there is a time scale from creation to illness recognisable symptoms.

B. If I applied this to Dolly - albeit a bit tongue in cheek, it becomes clear the reported Arthritis a fairly serious but not on its own life threatening; had a Three to Five year gestation period, which would correlate to the Human Scale.

1...

A.  And the premature death of an unrelated disorder correlates perfectly with the Seven year gestation period of a reaction to trauma...

B. ...In this case the Birth with no Mother emotional and chemical interaction whilst within the Womb; that even a Sheep that has a Mind will required to experience.

C. For without this necessary experience - there would be a high Value of Fear; causing the Lung Cancer and a lifetime of Cause Unknown Anxiety, the cause of the Arthritis.

D. Surely one has to question the scientific inquiry in this. Normal Human cells however die after about 50 cell divisions in laboratory culture." Do they not do that in the Body.   

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Effects of Ageing.  

Section. 4.

The comments contained within the box above. "But the cause is more probably Gravity." Renders anything Medical Sciense suggests about the process of Ageing not even worthy of a further mention.


A number of characteristic ageing symptoms are experienced by a majority or by a significant proportion of Humans during their lifetimes.

Item 1. Teenagers lose the young Child's ability to hear high-frequency sounds above 20 kHz.

Response. Very few Children  ever reach Teenage years without some form of Emotional and or Physical Trauma - how can such science be of value if the Mind and its thought processes are not taken into account in such studies relating to hearing ability changes.

Item 2. Cognitive decline begins in the mid-20s.

Response. Very few Children  ever reach their mid twenties years without some for of Emotional and or Physical Trauma - how can such science be of value; if the Mind and its thought processes are not taken into account in such studies relating to cognitive ability decline.

Item 3. Wrinkles develop mainly due to photo ageing, particularly affecting sun-exposed areas - face.

Response. If we accept this as Scientifically Proven Fact - how des this work if the Person always keeps part of the body covered or never spends time in the sun; if their skin is wrinkled.

Item 4. After peaking in the mid-20s, Female fertility declines.

Response. No mention is made of this study information being obtained from a random selection of Women from all walks of life or from Women already with Menstruation or Fertility problems. Thus this information is not even worthy of being called of Novel Interest let alone Scientifically proven.  

Item 5. People over 35 years of age are at risk for developing presbyopia -Long-sightedness caused by loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye, occurring typically in middle and old age. Most People benefit from reading glasses by age 45-50.

Response.  When such times as Medial Sciense understand the entire body chemistry - they will be able to comprehend; if we accept the lens loses elasticity they would then understand why. Which is nothing directly to do with vision at all let alone Ageing.

Item 6. The cause is lens hardening by decreasing levels of α-crystallin, a process which may be sped up by higher temperatures.

Response. When such times as Medical Sciense understands the connection between The Mind, emotions and higher body temperatures - this will make sense. 

Item 7. Around age 50, hair turns grey.

Response. When such times as Medical Sciense understands the connection between The Mind, emotions and the entire body chemistry - this will make sense.

Item 8. Pattern hair loss by the age of 50 affects about half of Males and a quarter of Females.

Response. As will this.

Item 9. Menopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age.

Response. If one were to have at ones disposal the health care timeline from at least Puberty if not Birth of the Females in this or any study - one may well be able to establish early menopause was if fact created by Medical Sciense and medical treatments; not addressing the true cause of their many life-long symptoms.

Item 10. In the 60-64 age cohort, the incidence of osteoarthritis rises to 53%.

Response. If one were to have at ones disposal the health care timeline from Birth of the Persons in this or any study - one may well be able to establish early Osteoarthritis was if fact created by Medical Sciense and medical treatments; not addressing the true cause of their many life-long symptoms. 

Item 11. Only 20% however report disabling osteoarthritis at this age.

Response. Thus the 53% - 20% leaves a very large margin for demonstrating guesswork.

Item 12. Almost half of People older than 75 have hearing loss inhibiting spoken communication.

Response. In the absence of numbers of People in the Population used to quantify such computations - this can surely rate as less than guesswork.

Item 13. By age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery.

Response. In the absence of numbers of People in the Population used to quantify such computations - this can surely rate as less than guesswork.

Item 14. Frailty, defined as loss of muscle mass and mobility, affects 25% of those over 85.

Response. In the absence of numbers of People in the Population used to quantify such computations - this can surely rate as less than guesswork.

Item 15. Atherosclerosis is classified as an Ageing Disease.

Response. In the absence of the knowing the cause and a having a definitive cure of this distressing condition that has been scientifically proven - Getting old and having this disorder is not science; it can only be, guesswork.

Item 16. Atherosclerosis leads to cardiovascular disease - for example stroke and Heart Attack which globally is the most common cause of death.

Response. Or would one be better expressed by saying. "as the true cause is not known and there is no known cure for; Atherosclerosis" there must surely be room for scientific inquiry to suggest - whatever caused the Atherosclerosis, that was poorly treated, is the true cause - along with side-effects from medications that contributed or even caused any Cardiovascular Disease that leads to a Heart Attack.

Item 17. The maximum Human lifespan is suggested to be 115 years, "for the foreseeable future.

Response. When one reviews the Scientific Evidence base data seeking a definitive cure for any illness and is unable to find one. Is it not worthy of a scientific inquiry style of looking back at the past with open eyes and seeing the most serious possibility - it was Humans themself through the process of evolutionary change that improved longevity, not medical Sciense at all. 

Item 18. The oldest reliably recorded Human was Jeanne Calment who attained 122 years and died in 1997.

Response. When one understands the Human Mind and applies true Scientific Inquiry to this case. One can surely only come up with the understanding Jeanne Calment when presented with a blank "Will," by her Lawyer, along with the reassuring words that followed; at the age of around 68 and in poor health and by questioning it being blank. Was advised; "Leave everything to me, "I Will fill in all the details. " Was sufficient inspiration for her to live not die soon; as was the Lawyer's desire and outlive the Lawyer by some forty years.  

Item 19. Dementia becomes more common with age.

Response. There may well be truth in this statement - however in the absence of any satisfactory Sciense to comprehend. "Why." This is no more than a statement any Person in any community may be able to make.

Item 20. About 3% of People between the ages of 65 and 74, 19% between 75 and 84 and nearly half of those over 85 years of age have Dementia.

Response. Again one must with a calculating eye and in the absence of numbers of People in the Population used to quantify such computations - question this as it can surely only rate as less than guesswork.

Item 21. The spectrum ranges from mild cognitive impairment to the neurodegenerative diseases of Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease.

Response. Is Medical Sciense so blinded by its lack of success - not able to observe all of these are no more than symptoms, a demonstration perhaps of long-term illness not resolved all running side by side ending up the same place. Death, rather than independent illness symptoms. 

Item 22. Furthermore, many types of memory may decline with Ageing, but not semantic memory or general knowledge such as vocabulary definitions, which typically increases or remains steady until late adulthood.

A. Semantic Memory refers to a portion of long-term memory that processes ideas and concepts that are not drawn from personal experience. 

B. Semantic Memory includes things that are common knowledge, such as the names of colors, the sounds of letters, the capitals of countries and other basic facts acquired over a lifetime.

Response...

A. How deep is the desperation  of Medical Sciense to demonstrate. "They are right and everyone else is wrong by default" - just because they say so.

B. Surely Memory is Memory and we only have one Mind to store all of life's information- be that good bad or indifferent all of it become on an ever increasing bases the Person we show to the world - thus is a necessary requirement for us to run our life. even if we are unable to recall on demand - all or indeed any of it.     

Item 23. Intelligence may decline with age, though the rate may vary depending on the type and may in fact remain steady throughout most of the lifespan, dropping suddenly only as People near the end of their lives.

Response...

A. There may well be truth in this statement - however in the absence of any satisfactory Sciense to comprehend, "Why." This is no more than a statement any Person in any community may be able to make.

B. If  there was any Sciense behind this guesswork - would it not have been proven or at least offered an explanation; as to why Intelligence appears to drop suddenly, as People near the end of their lives.

Item 24. Individual variations in rate of cognitive decline may therefore be explained in terms of People having different lengths of life.

Response... Instead of further guessing as this appears to do.  

Item 25. There might be changes to the brain: after 20 years of age and there may be a 10% reduction each decade in the total length of the brain's myelinated axons.

Response. This may well bear out under a microscope - however would be greatly enhanced if the process was explained and understood. 

Item 26. Age can result in visual impairment, whereby non-verbal communication is reduced, which can lead to isolation

and possible Depression.

Response. Is this really part of. "Ageing," or a demonstration - as yet Medical Sciense is unable to explain Ageing
and Depression are not in the slightest; anything to do with one another.  

Item 27. Macular degeneration causes vision loss and increases with age, affecting nearly 12% of those above the age of 80.

Response...

A. This may well be so - yet I see no attempt to demonstrate with any Sciense the proof of this statement.

B. In addition where are the participants for these numbers drawn from.

Item 28. This degeneration is caused by systemic changes in the circulation of waste products and by growth of abnormal vessels around the retina.

Response. Tells us about it nicely - does not attempt to demonstrate, no more than it completes the Biological process. 

Item 29. A distinction can be made between "Proximal Ageing,"  and, "Distal Ageing."

Response...

A. Proximal Ageing.  Age-based effects that come about because of factors in the recent past.

B. Distal Ageing. Age-based differences that can be traced to a cause in Person's early life, such as Childhood Poliomyelitis.

C. I am amazed Medical Sciense in the year 2017 is still able to furnish information as this that is clear to any one with or without a medical degree. Polio is not only a symptom but real evaluation may well establish - it was in fact medically created.

Item 30. Ageing is among the greatest known risk factors for most Human diseases.

Response. Demonstrated by the aged scientific proof. The more Birthday on has the older one gets.

Item 31. Of the roughly 150,000 People who die each day across the globe, about two thirds-100,000 per day - die from age-related causes.

Response. No one ever dies of unrelated causes - they all die either of natural, no illness causes; or a lifetime of poorly treated symptoms and medicated side effects.

Item 32. In Industrialised nations, the proportion is higher, reaching 90%.

Response. Please explain to me how this is related to the process or effects of Ageing - rather than just number crunching or space filling.

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Biological basis of Ageing.  

Section. 5.

Senescence.

    The condition or process of deterioration with age.

        The loss of a cell's power of division and growth.


Item 1. At present, researchers are only just beginning to understand the biological basis of Ageing even in relatively simple and short-lived organisms such as yeast.

Response..

A. How sad in 2017 Medical Sciense has to make such statements. Is not Aging of a Person just another way of saying evolution of the species.

B. Is there an indication here that in another 4.5 billion years there will be a full understanding of Age progression.

C. Or is this how the Universities and Medical Schools planned research only to ever keep searching yet oblivious of never finding.

Item 2. Less still is known of mammalian Ageing, in part due to the much longer lives of even small mammals such as the mouse - around 3 years.

Response. I rest my case.

Item 3. A model organism for studying of Ageing is the Nematode C. elegans, thanks to its short lifespan of 2–3 weeks, the ability to easily perform genetic manipulations or to suppress gene activity with RNA interference, or other factors.

A. Nematode C. elegans?

B. C. elegans is a nematode - a member of the Phylum Nematoda:

C. Nematoda.

1. The roundworms and threadworms, a phylum of smooth-skinned, unsegmented worm with a long cylindrical body shape tapered at the ends; includes free-living and parasitic forms - both aquatic and terrestrial.

D. Elegans is a non-hazardous, non-infectious, non-pathogenic, non-parasitic organism. 

1. It is small, growing to about 1 mm in length and lives in the soil - especially rotting vegetation and in many parts of the world, where it survives by feeding on microbes such as bacteria. It is of no economic importance to man.

Response...

A. Now I am no gardener yet I am able to at least see; "It is of no economic importance to man." not only cannot have any validity - in it self destroys any reason to study the worm.

B. Surely no Soil on the planet is of any real value; unless it has been processed by a worm - soil engineer,  of some description or other. How will any crop grow in an infertile ground.

C...

1. This is a development that more than a century ago, English naturalist Charles Darwin in 1881 made the following concluding statement in his last and final book: "The plough is one of the most ancient and most valuable of man’s inventions; but long before he existed the land was in fact regularly ploughed by earth-worms.

2. It may be doubted whether there are many other animals which have played so important a part in the history of the world, as have these lowly organized creatures."

Item 4. Most known mutations and RNA interference targets that extend lifespan were first discovered in C. elegans.

Response. Yet "It is of no economic importance to man."

Item 5. The factors proposed to influence biological Ageing fall into two main categories, programmed and damage-related.

Response...

1. Sounds interesting even if of novel only interest.

2. Neither; can stop or even alter the Natural Ageing Process.

3. A Person is going to Age no matter what influence.

4. Only death can stop this process.

Item 6. Programmed factors follow a biological timetable, perhaps one that might be a continuation of the one that regulates Childhood growth and development.

Response. Surely it takes more than a degree in Medical Sciense to observe Childhood Growth and Development are not the same processes as Ageing.

Item 7. This regulation would depend on changes in gene expression that affect the systems responsible for maintenance, repair and defence responses.

Response. In the same manner; "changes in gene expression are not the same processes as Ageing."

Item 8. Damage-related factors include internal and environmental assaults to living organisms that induce cumulative damage at various levels.

Response. Are not the same processes as Ageing.

Item 9. There are three main metabolic pathways which can influence the rate of Ageing, discussed below:

A. the FOXO3/Sirtuin pathway, probably responsive to caloric restriction.

B. The Growth hormone/Insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling pathway.

C. The activity levels of the electron transport chain in mitochondria and - in plants in chloroplasts.

Response. Whilst there may be some scientific validity in this thesis - the truth may be a little more difficult to accept. Ageing and the rate of Ageing are two completely different processes.  

Item 10. It is likely that most of these pathways affect ageing separately, because targeting them simultaneously leads to additive increases in lifespan.

Response...

A. Whilst there may be some scientific validity in this thesis - it can surely only be so in a individual Human, a Mouse or a Plant. As every Person, Mouse or Plant is Unique.

B. Perhaps more importantly as there are in excess of Two Thousand Chemicals in a Human Body not one of them in isolation can possible be positively or negatively affective in the process of Ageing.   

----------------------------------------

Programmed Factors.  

Section. 6.

Item 1. The rate of Ageing varies substantially across different species and this, to a large extent, is genetically based.
Response. Of course it is Genetically Based and every living organism on the planet will have a different genetic base - however it is Scientifically Proven. The passing of TIME is the same for all of them.
Item 2. For example, numerous perennial plants ranging from strawberries and potatoes to willow trees typically produce clones of themselves by vegetative reproduction and are thus potentially immortal, while annual plants such as wheat and watermelons die each year and reproduce by sexual reproduction.
Response. Whether life is created by sexual reproduction or cloning is inconsequential to the process of Ageing - which no matter what the method of creation is solely Time Based.
Item 3. In 2008 it was discovered that inactivation of only two genes in the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana leads to its conversion into a potentially immortal perennial plant.
Response. This again has no relevance to Ageing it only shows more distracting from the real purpose of understand Ageing.
Item 4. Clonal immortality apart, there are certain species whose individual lifespans stand out among Earth's life-forms, including the bristlecone pine at 5062 years, however Hayflick states that the bristlecone pine has no cells older than 30 years, invertebrates like the hard clam, known as quahog in New England at 508 years, the Greenland shark at 400 years, fish like the sturgeon and the rockfish and the sea anemone and lobster.
Response. A rock created during a volcanic eruption has a life span to date of perhaps 4.5 billion years - does this mean it ages quicker or slower to any other being in the same time Earth is Locked by Mankind's 24 Hour Time Frame.
Item 5. Such organisms are sometimes said to exhibit negligible senescence.
Response...
A. Senescence -The condition or process of deterioration with age. The loss of a cell's power of division and growth.

B.
One is obliged to suggest this is nothing to do with Ageing - more a process as yet not fully understood by Medical Sciense.
Item 6. The genetic aspect has also been demonstrated in studies of Human centenarians.
Response. Surely - the only thing that does not even have to be studied in the process of Ageing; is in this instance, a Person has Aged beyond the One Hundred Year timeline.
Item 7. In laboratory settings, researchers have demonstrated that selected alterations in specific genes can extend lifespan quite substantially in yeast and roundworms, less so in fruit flies and less again in mice.
Response. This only demonstrates by playing around with a substance one does not fully understand - it appears the Life can be extended. Let us accept this as Scientifically Proven. Yet I am forced to ask. "What has this to do with Ageing.
Item 8. Some of the targeted genes have homologues across species and in some cases have been associated with Human Longevity.
Response...

A. Homology. In chemistry, homology is the appearance of homologues. A homologue is a compound belonging to a series of compounds differing from each other by a repeating unit.

B.
Thus in their own words each of us differ from each other thus Ageing is only a Time Process nothing to do with Biological Processes. 
 

----------------------------------------
DNA Methylation.  

Section. 7...

Item 1...

A. DNA Methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.

B. Methylation can change the activity of a DNA segment without changing the DNA sequence.

C. When located in a gene promoter, DNA methylation typically acts to repress gene transcription.

Response. Without having the Sciense presented in Item B, one has to consider accepting. The DNA mentioned is only a working copy not the Genes of Biological Construction and this is the reason why there is no change in the DNA sequencing.   

Item 2. The strong effect of age on DNA methylation levels has been known since the late 1960s.

Response. It is surely clear when taking into consideration Item 1. C. and the well publicised Medical Sciense fact. "The Mind plays no part in illness creation or recovery." Age itself can play no part in any DNA sequence alterations 

Item 3. Horvath hypothesised that DNA methylation age measures the cumulative effect of an epigenetic maintenance system but details are unknown.

Response. Speaks for itself by the comments. "but details are unknown."

Item 4. DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life.

Response. This is nothing to do with the process of Ageing. Only unresolved illness creating an early end to life.

Item 5.Furthermore, prematurely Aged mice can be rejuvenated and their lives extended by 30% by partially "resetting," the methylation pattern in their cells - a full reset leads to undesirable immortal Cancer cells.

Response.Surely this is but another chapter in the immortal book of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Play with chemicals in the body and one goes Mad - or in this instance causes Cancer to mutate beyond any known control.

Item 6. This resetting into a juvenile state was experimentally achieved by activating the four Yamanaka DNA transcription factors – Sox2, Oct4, Klf4 and c-Myc - which have previously been routinely used for producing young animals from cloned adult skin cells.

Response.This cannot possibly be anything to do with the process of Ageing only Scientifically Created Ageing and as the Cancer cells above - the possibility of early Death.

Item 7. Telomeres: In Humans and other animals, cellular senescence has been attributed to the shortening of telomeres at each cell division; when telomeres become too short, the cells senesce and die or cease multiplying.

Response...

A. A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

B. Is it not best we remember. Ageing or Aging, is the process of becoming older. Whereas this process is clearly linked to some form of illness. 

Item 8.The length of telomeres is therefore the, "molecular clock," predicted by Hayflick.

Response.Or is it better said. The length of Telomeres is only a one chemical expression of the entire body chemicals in constant flux and nothing - as a natural fundamental right, to do with Ageing - a fundamental right; that without - no one would ever be taken seriously; if one only ever looked like a Teenager.

Item 9. However, telomere length in wild mouse strains is unrelated to lifespan and mice lacking the telomerase enzyme do not have a dramatically reduced lifespan.

Response. This can  not be of interest to anyone let alone Medicals Sciense if one does not talk Mouse Talk thereby enabling the true understanding from a Mouse perspective as to what the DNA alterations are really doing.

Item 10. Laboratory mice's telomeres are many times longer than Human ones.

Response. Therefore one must accept there is no point in studying Mice in order to understand Ageing - which is a time bound process not just Biological.

Item 11.Another caveat is that a study following nearly 1000 humans for ten years showed that while some Humans do shorten their telomeres over time, a third of the participants did not.

Response. As there was no explanation as to why or what this meant - one must conclude it is of no value to anyone in terms of understanding Ageing.

Item 12.A variation in the gene FOXO3A has a positive effect on the life expectancy of Humans and is found much more often in People living to 100 and beyond - moreover, this appears to be true worldwide.

Response.As there was no explanation as to why or what this meant - one must conclude it is of no value to anyone in terms of understanding Ageing.

Item 13. FOXO3A acts on the sirtuin family of genes which also have a significant effect on lifespan in yeast and in nematodes. The nematodes or roundworms - constitute the phylum Nematoda.

Response. Now this must be a most serious Scientifically Proven Clinical Pearl and quite remarkable if one explained what it meant in the process of Human Ageing. 

Item 14. Sirtuin in turn inhibits mTOR.

Response...

A. Sirtuin genes function as anti-Ageing genes in yeast, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila.

B. The NAD requirement for sirtuin function indicates a link between Ageing and metabolism and a boost in sirtuin activity may in part explain how calorie restriction extends life span.

C. In mammals, one of the substrates of the SIR2 ortholog, SIRT1, is a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, PGC-1alpha.

D. Indeed, the putative SIRT1 activator resveratrol has been shown to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and deliver health benefits in treated mice.

E. Mitochondrial biogenesis may have beneficial effects on Ageing and perhaps, diseases of Ageing.

F. In particular, it is speculated that SIRT1-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis may reduce the production of reactive Oxygen species, a possible cause of Ageing and offer two possible mechanisms for this effect.

G. An understanding of how calorie restriction works may lead to novel drugs to combat Diseases of Ageing.

H...

1.  If it is Scientifically Prove Sirtuin are Genes - is it not correct to suggest; they are part of the Genetic Structure, thus a fundamental necessity for the evolution of a body that ages over time.

2. Surely to suggest more secure understanding May Lead to Novel Drugs to combat disease is a completely different process.

Item 15. Caloric restriction leads to longer lifespans in various species, an effect that is unclear.

Response. Although this process is not clearly understood - the scientific suggestion is. "Probably mediated by the nutrient-sensing function of the mTOR pathway. mTOR, a protein that inhibits autophagy - that has been linked to Ageing through the insulin signalling pathway."

Item 16. The mTOR functions through nutrient and growth cues - leading scientists to believe; that dietary restriction and mTOR are related in terms of longevity.

Response. If one is suggesting one is acting with true Scientific Inquiry in order to Scientifically Prove a Hypotheses - should one not first have a sound base to work from rather than end up only with. "We Believe." As The outcome from the studies.

Item 17. When organisms restrict their diet, mTOR activity is reduced, which allows an increased level of autophagy.

Response...

A. Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents to the lysosome. Despite its simplicity, recent progress has demonstrated that autophagy plays a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological roles, which are sometimes complex.

B...

1. Is it not Medical Sciense with all of its wisdom that clearly demonstrates the Human Body Chemistry is always perfectly balanced - Homeostasis.

2. Therefore one can consider for an organism to restrict the Diet there is a good reason for it thus automatically create a complete rebalance of the body chemistry in order to accommodate to the Dietary Intake - therefore this is not a process of Ageing.

3. It is however easier to accept as a process of illness acquisition. 

C...

1. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a constant internal environment.

2. The nervous system and hormones are responsible for this and one example of homeostasis is the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood being carefully controlled.

Item 18. This recycles old or damaged cell parts, which increases longevity and decreases the chances of being obese.

Response...

A. How can one seriously study the process of Ageing when one constantly interposes. Ageing with illness - a completely different process.

B. Interpose; to put oneself or something between two things, People, or groups, especially in order to stop them doing something.

Item 19. This is thought to prevent spikes of glucose concentration in the Blood, leading to reduced insulin signalling.

Response...

A. Whilst one must accept the delivery of Blood in the proper form and quality is of major importance in the process of growing - in terms of Ageing it has no part to play as this is a time line event.

B.Thus, spikes of glucose concentration in the Blood, leading to reduced insulin signalling are part of the process of Illness creation; not Ageing.

Item 20. This has been linked to less mTOR activation as well.

Response. Thus is confirmed is only an explanation of the creation or sustainment of illness and nothing to do with Ageing.

Item 21. Therefore, longevity has been connected to caloric restriction and insulin sensitivity inhibiting mTOR, which in turns allows autophagy to occur more frequently.

Response. Surely Longevity is as a result of Ageing - not part of the process;  no more than it is the process of illness creation.

Item 22. It may be that mTOR inhibition and autophagy reduce the effects of Reactive Oxygen Species on the body, which damage DNA and other organic material, so longevity would be increased.

Response...

A. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing Oxygen. Examples include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical and singlet Oxygen.

B. In a biological context, ROS are formed as a natural byproduct of the normal metabolism of Oxygen and have important roles in cell signaling and homeostasis.

C. However, during times of environmental stress - e.g., UV or heat exposure, ROS levels can increase dramatically.

D. This may result in significant damage to cell structures.

E. Cumulatively, this is known as - Oxidative stress which reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

F. ROS are also generated by exogenous sources such as ionizing radiation.

G...

1. One could be excused for reading item 22 twice for on the second reading it appears clear it is making contradictory statements.

2. As Response Items: C, D, E and F demonstrate.

3. For surely this are Clinical Pearls that indicate a decrease in longevity.

4. More importantly once again are not an explanation of the Ageing process only of poorly understood illness.

H. It appears Clinical Pearls are something for Medical Scientists to get excited about.   

Item 23. A decreased Growth hormone/Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 signalling pathway has been associated with increased life span in various organisms including fruit flies, nematodes and mice.

Response. Increased life span is as a result of Ageing not an explanation of the Ageing process.

Item 24. The precise mechanism by which decreased GH/IGF-1 signalling increases longevity is unknown, but various mouse strains with decreased GH and/or IGF-1 induced signalling share a similar phenotype which includes increased insulin sensitivity, enhanced stress resistance and protection from carcinogenesis.

Response. As clear a demonstration as one would wish for to demonstrate. "If the right one does not get you then the left one will." Nothing to do with Ageing - just part of the illness Process. 

Item 25. The studied mouse strains with decreased GH signalling showed between 20% and 68% increased longevity and mouse strains with decreased IGF-1 induced signalling revealed a 19 to 33% increase in life span when compared to control mice.

Response. Because using Medical Sciense one can increase the life span of Mice cannot be taken as an indication the Process of Ageing is being understood.

Item 26. Over-expression of the Ras2 gene increases lifespan in yeast by 30%.

Response. WOW - but how does this relate to the process of Ageing in Humans.

Item 27.A yeast mutant lacking the genes sch9 and ras2 has recently been shown to have a tenfold increase in lifespan under conditions of calorie restriction and is the largest increase achieved in any organism.

Response. If one runs out of Padding for ones thesis or to justify the funding stream - repeat earlier findings in a different way and hope no one notices.

----------------------------------------

Item 1. Many have argued that life span, like other phenotypes, is selected.

Response. Yes it is called Evolution of the species - nothing happens per chance; Like all illness it happens for a reason.

Item 2. Traits that benefit early survival and reproduction will be selected - even if they contribute to an earlier death.

Response...

A. Yes it is called Evolution of the species - nothing happens per chance.

B. Something like Medical Sciense has to be tested - evolution unlike Medical Sciense; recognises when something does not work and makes changes necessary to ensure later findings do. 

Item 3...

1. A genetic effect called the Antagonistic Pleiotropy effect when referring to a gene - pleiotropy signifying the gene has a double function; enabling reproduction at a young age but costing the organism life expectancy in old age and is called the disposable soma effect when referring to an entire genetic program - the organism diverting limited resources from maintenance to reproduction.

A. Pleiotropy (from Greek πλείων pleion, "more", and τρόπος tropos, "way") occurs when one gene influences two or more seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits.

B. Therefore, a mutation in a pleiotropic gene may have an effect on several traits simultaneously due to the gene coding for a product used by a myriad of cells or different targets that have the same signaling function.

C. Pleiotropy can arise from several distinct but potentially overlapping mechanisms, such as molecular gene pleiotropy, developmental pleiotropy and selectional pleiotropy.

D. Molecular gene pleiotropy occurs when the gene product interacts with multiple other proteins or catalyzes multiple reactions.

E. Developmental pleiotropy occurs when mutations have multiple effects on the resulting phenotype.

F. Selectional Pleiotropy occurs when the resulting phenotype has multiple effects on fitness - perhaps depending on age, gender.

G. An example of pleiotropy is phenylketonuria, which is an inherited disorder that affects the level of phenylalanine in the body.

H. Phenylalanine is an amino acid that can be obtained from food.

I. Phenylketonuria causes this amino acid to increase in amount in the body, which can be very dangerous.

J. The Human disease is caused by a defect in a single gene on chromosome 12 that affects multiple systems, such as the nervous and integumentary system.

K. Other examples of pleiotropy are albinism, sickle cell anemia and certain forms of autism and schizophrenia.

L. Pleiotropy not only affects Humans, but also animals, such as chickens and laboratory house mice, where the laboratory house mice have found to exhibit the "mini-muscle" allele.

M. Pleiotropic gene action can limit the rate of multivariate evolution when natural selectionsexual selection or artificial selection on one trait favors one specific version of the gene - allele, while selection on other traits favors a different allele, which shows how evolution is negatively related with pleiotropy in models.

N. Although some of the evolution in genes can be beneficial, some gene evolution is harmful to an organism. 

O. Genetic correlations and responses to selection most often exemplify pleiotropy.

Response...

1. One has to consider this is no more than Esoteric - only we know what we are referring too, Demonstrated by. Is it not fair to say as any Body with a Genetic Structure - one has to stand back and marvel at the Mathematical Computation Evolution exposed when life created the complex yet individual shape of say a Human from just four chemicals.

2. As demonstrated within the nucleic acid of DNA and represented by the letters G–C–A–T.  Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine and Thymine.

3. In addition to continue to make a chain from these four chemicals some 130,000 rungs long Create a copy then twist them together to multiply into a life form that is so unique as to be only one of a kind against 7 billion People.

A. Even Identical Twins although with the same DNA have subtle differences as to make them unique.

4. Item F>N clearly demonstrates - all Scientific Inquiry into the Natural process of Ageing is lost - congenital or any other illnesses are not part of the process of Ageing; it its the process having been interfered with.

5...

A. Under these circumstances how can anyone with or without Scientific Inquiry truly demonstrate they understand the Genetic Process of Life if one is unable to see or accept the possibility they are Construction Genes.

B. Of no value from conception and Life Genes - in a constant state of change.

C. Especially if confusion reigns between the process of Ageing and Illness interfering with the process.  

Item 4. The biological mechanisms which regulate lifespan evolved several hundred million years ago.

Response...

1. Even with my pathetic knowledge of true evolution history. I am able to see - this does not even rate as guesswork; for life has been evolving for billions of years, therefore even from the very first single cell of life. If there was such a thing, there has always been a lifespan, that is related to the process of Ageing.

2. For failing to consider - even with a Single Cell death; if nothing ever died the world would be even more full that it is currently.

Item 5. Some evidence is provided by oxygen-deprived bacterial cultures.

Response. If one reads this correctly is it not saying. "When a Bacteria was placed in a culture dish and starved of Oxygen it provided some evidence." Of what one is obliged to ask. 

Item 6. The theory would explain why the autosomal dominant disease, Huntington's disease, can persist even though it is inexorably lethal.

Response. Where is the Sciense to demonstrate this is part of the Ageing Process and not an interference in the process.

Item 7. Also, it has been "suggested," that some of the genetic variants that increase fertility in the young - increase Cancer risk in the old.

Response. And that is all it is worthy of. "A suggestion."

Item 8...

A. Such variants occur in genes and BRCA1.

B. The reproductive-cell cycle theory argues that Ageing is regulated specifically by reproductive hormones that act in an antagonistic pleiotropic manner via cell cycle signalling, promoting growth and development early in life to achieve reproduction, but becoming dysregulated later in life, driving senescence - diesis in a futile attempt to maintain reproductive ability.

Response. Is it not fair to say, as this extract from above demonstrates. "The reproductive-cell cycle theory argues that Ageing is regulated specifically by reproductive hormones that act in an antagonistic pleiotropic manner via cell cycle signalling." Are so contradictory as to be laughable rather than Scientifically Proven.

Item 9. The endocrine dyspraxia that follows the loss of follicles with menopause and the loss of Leyden and Sterol cells during andropause, drive aberrant cell cycle signalling that leads to cell death and dysfunction, tissue dysfunction - disease and ultimately death.

Response. And is nothing whatsoever to do with the process of Ageing.

Item 10. Moreover, the hormones that regulate reproduction also regulate cellular metabolism, explaining the increases in fat deposition during pregnancy through to the deposition of centralised adiposity with the dysregulation of the HPG axis following menopause and during andropause.

Response. And is nothing whatsoever to do with the process of Ageing.

Item 11. This theory, which introduced a new definition of Ageing, has facilitated the conceptualization of why and how Ageing occurs at the evolutionary, physiological and molecular levels.

Response. And theory it remains - confirmed by the desperate attempt in order to pad the research by interlacing Ageing - a natural process demonstrate by the passage of time; with Illness; created by as yet factors unknown by Scientific Inquiry. 

----------------------------------------

Autoimmunity.  

Section. 9.

Item 1. The Scientific idea is. Ageing results from an increase in autoantibodies that attack the body's tissues.

Response. And Idea it remains - confirmed by the desperate attempt in order to pad the research by interlacing Ageing - a natural process demonstrate by the passage of time; with Illness; created by as yet factors unknown by Scientific Inquiry. 

Item 2. A number of diseases associated with Ageing, such as atrophic gastritis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, are probably autoimmune in this way.

Response. And Diseases Associated it remains - confirmed by the desperate attempt in order to pad the research by interlacing Ageing - a natural process demonstrate by the passage of time; with Illness; created by as yet factors unknown by Scientific Inquiry. 

Item 3. However, while inflammation is very much evident in old mammals, even completely immunodeficient mice raised in pathogen-free laboratory conditions still experience senescence = The condition or process of deterioration with age and the loss of a cell's power of division and growth.

Response...

A. Clearly as demonstrated here - all Scientific inquiry has been erased by the Universities and Medical Schools.

B. Confirmed by the desperate attempt to pad the research of Ageing by failing to recognise as this guesswork clearly demonstrates; created by as yet factors unknown by Scientific Inquiry.

C. For if one does not comprehend Inflammation is nothing to do with Ageing - then understanding even completely immunodeficient mice raised in pathogen-free laboratory conditions still experience cell death. One has lost all Scientific Inquiry.

----------------------------------------

Section. 10.

Item 1. The cellular balance between energy generation and consumption - energy homeostasis requires tight regulation during Ageing.

Response. Apart from this being nothing to do with the process of Ageing one has to question by what process can one bring such a process back to Normal.

Item 2. In 2011, it was demonstrated that acetylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase change with Age in yeast and that preventing this change slows yeast Ageing.

Response. Yes still today in 2017 Medical Sciense is still locked into cake or home made wine making to proffer anything really worthwhile as to the Ageing process - as distinct from illness and Ageing.

----------------------------------------

Damage-Related Factors.

Section. 11.

Item 1. DNA damage theory of ageing: DNA damage is thought to be the common basis of both Cancer and Ageing and it has been argued that intrinsic causes of DNA damage are the most important drivers of Ageing.

Response...

1. It is clear to me the possibility exists. I have so far in this paper been Mind Blind to the premise of Medical Science investigating Ageing; however I am minded. "If we do not understand the Natural process of Ageing then it becomes acceptable we already are setting ourselves up to receive Funding or relief of ones own Anxiety.

2. By not recognising   the "Thought" intrinsic causes of DNA damage, are Symptoms of a Cause not a cause in themselves.    

Item 2. Genetic damage - aberrant structural alterations of the DNA, mutations - changes in the DNA sequence and epimutations - methylation of gene promoter regions or alterations of the DNA scaffolding which regulate gene expression, can cause abnormal gene expression.

Response...

1. One can grow a weed in a Field of Roses - but it will always be a weed.

2. Just reading this is sufficient to make one feel quite giddy uses a lot of words but says very little relating to the process of Ageing. 

Item 3...

A. DNA damage causes the cells to stop dividing or induces Apoptosis, often affecting stem cell pools and hence hindering regeneration.

1. Apoptosis = the death of cells which occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.

Response. Thus we are able to conclude this is an organised process - whilst nothing to do with the process of Ageing.

Item 4.  However, lifelong studies of mice suggest that most mutations happen during embryonic and Childhood development, when cells divide often, as each cell division is a chance for errors in DNA replication.

Response. Which is nothing to do with the process of Ageing only a demonstration the process is not being understood. 

Item 5. Genetic instability: In Heart muscle cells, dogs annually lose approximately 3.3% of the DNA in their Heart muscle cells while Humans lose approximately 0.6% of their Heart muscle DNA each year.

Response.  When one consider Dogs have a Seven to one ration of longevity compared to Humans one has to consider just who is trying to kid who.

Item 6. These numbers are close to the ratio of the maximum longevities of the two species - 120 years vs. 20 years, a 6/1 ratio.

Response. Ok excused - studying dogs activity is not in my remit as it bears no relationship to the process of Ageing nor indeed illness; but where is the relationship to Ageing, in this Scientific  understanding.

Item 7. The comparative percentage is also similar between the Dog and Humans for yearly DNA loss in the brain and lymphocytes.

Response. But what has this to do with the Natural Process of Ageing - where is the Sciense to back this guesswork up.

Item 8. As stated by lead author, Bernard L. Strehler, "... genetic damage - particularly gene loss is almost certainly - or probably the central cause of Ageing."Accumulation of waste:

Response. Clearly  Strehler was just trying to justify a thesis he was not sure of, that he demonstrates by adding. "Accumulation of Waste." Which is nothing to do with the Ageing Process.

Item 9. A buildup of waste products in cells presumably interferes with metabolism.

Response. More Guesswork. 

Item 10. For example, a waste product called lipofuscin is formed by a complex reaction in cells that binds fat to proteins.

Response. May well have relevance in many different biological activity - but where is the Sciense than locks this guesswork to the Process of Ageing.

Item 11. This waste accumulates in the cells as small granules, which increase in size as a Person ages.

Response. But where is the Sciense than locks this guesswork to the Process of Ageing.

Item 12. The hallmark of Ageing yeast cells appears to be overproduction of certain proteins.

Response. Where is the Sciense than locks this guesswork to the Process of Ageing.

Item 13. Autophagy induction can enhance clearance of toxic intracellular waste associated with neurodegenerative diseases and has been comprehensively demonstrated to improve lifespan in yeast, worms, flies, rodents and primates.

Item 14...

A.
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents to the lysosome.

B.
Despite its simplicity, recent progress has demonstrated that autophagy plays a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological roles, which are sometimes complex.

Response. Wow - but where is the Sciense than locks this guesswork to the Process of Ageing.

Item 15. The situation, however, has been complicated by the identification that autophagy up-regulation can also occur during Ageing.

Response. Where is the Sciense than locks this guesswork to the Process of Ageing.

Item 16. Autophagy is enhanced in obese mice by caloric restriction, exercise and a low fat diet - but in these mice is evidently not related with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

Response. Where is the Sciense than locks this guesswork to the Process of Ageing.

----------------------------------------

Wear-and-Tear Theory.

Section. 12.

Item 1. The general idea that changes associated with Ageing - are the result of chance damage that accumulates over time.

Response. Is it not fair to say here we are at Section 12 and still there is so much guesswork going on the Process of Ageing appears to have been lost in the funding applications.   

Item 2. Accumulation of errors: The idea that Ageing results from chance events that escape proof reading mechanisms, which gradually damages the genetic code.

Response...

1. Should it escape our notice with; "chance events that escape proof reading mechanisms."

2. The age of True Scientific Inquiry has been erased by the very education process designed to explore the Process of Ageing by the reliant of Electronic Numbers and Electronic Proof Reading of a Thesis and Dissertation - that only delivers what is searched for and never the real truth.

Item 3. Cross-linkage: The idea that Ageing results from accumulation of cross-linked compounds that interfere with normal cell function.

Response. Surely. Ageing results through the passage of time - thus is nothing to do with a process that interferes with. The Normal Cell Function.

Item 4. Studies of mtDNA mutator in mice have shown that increased levels of somatic mtDNA mutations directly can cause a variety of Ageing phenotypes.

Response. Where is the Sciense than locks this guesswork to the Process of Ageing and moreover, that one Single Gene is responsible.

Item 5. It is proposed - that mtDNA mutations lead to respiratory-chain-deficient cells and thence to apoptosis and cell loss.

Response. Where is the Sciense than locks this guesswork to the Process of Ageing and moreover one Single Gene and Natural Cell loss and replacement - is responsible.

Item 7. Experimentally doubt has been cast - however on the common assumption that mitochondrial mutations and dysfunction lead to increased generation of Reactive Oxygen Species - ROS.

Response. It is not a strange occurrence when Medical Sciense desires the readers of the thesis and dissertations to be swayed away from how little is known - they simplify the heading; as in this in stance Wear and Tear Theory and Reactive Oxygen Species; still today as mysterious as to its true cause and has no known cure thus is nothing to do with the Natural Ageing Process. 

Item 8. Free-radical theory: Damage by free radicals, or more generally reactive oxygen species or oxidative stress, create damage that may give rise to the symptoms we recognise as Ageing.

Response. Thus it is Scientifically Proven this is nothing to do with the Natural Process of Ageing. 

Item 9. Michael Ristow's group has provided evidence that the effect of calorie restriction may be due to increased formation of free radicals within the mitochondria, causing a secondary induction of increased antioxidant defence capacity.

Response. When ever a paper is referred to as Scientifically Proven yet contains the word May all is lost in possibility of proving anything.

Item 10. DNA oxidation and caloric restriction: Caloric restriction reduces 8-OH-dG DNA damage in organs of Ageing: Rats and Mice.

Response. It is interesting to note - no mention in the heading of this section refers to repair only damage. Leaving me to consider there is no available Sciense to back up this guesswork. 

Item 11. Thus, reduction of oxidative DNA damage is associated with a slower rate of Ageing and increased lifespan.

Response. Where is the Sciense to back up repair may be a possibility if the understanding of the process - is demonstrating it is secure.

----------------------------------------

Section. 13.

Lifestyle.

Item 1. Caloric restriction substantially affects lifespan in many animals, including the ability to delay or prevent many age-related diseases.

Response. Whilst we must respect all dietary intake whatever the calorific value is required for the process of growth to take place - should one not question; is this really related to Ageing.

Item 2. Typically, this involves caloric intake of 60–70% of what any animal would consume, while still maintaining proper nutrient intake.

Response. Surely the process of Ageing is securely linked to Ageing and thus we must take into consideration Lifespan is the sum of Ageing and nothing to do with Dietary intake, with Lifestyle the life activity we achieve during a lifetime from Birth to Death.    

Item 3. In rodents, this has been shown to increase lifespan by up to 50%; similar effects occur for yeast and Drosophila.

Response. Surely increasing a lifespan is not the same as Ageing.

Item 4. No lifespan data exist for Humans on a calorie-restricted diet, but several reports support protection from age-related diseases.

Response. Leaving one to consider - there are far to many variables with Humans that will not fit in the Scientific Data and if it did there may well be many questions still un asked yet answered - relating the real cause of illness; that may interfere with the present day. "There is no known cure and only symptom management.

Item 5. Two major ongoing studies on rhesus monkeys initially revealed disparate results; while one study, by the University of Wisconsin, showed that caloric restriction does extend lifespan, the second study, by the National Institute on Ageing (NIA), found no effects of caloric restriction on longevity.

Response. As clear a Scientific demonstration one could wish for as the Jury is still out to bring in a satisfactory understanding of the. Ageing process. 

Item 6. Both studies nevertheless showed improvement in a number of health parameters.

Response. Yet failed to demonstrate the process of Ageing is now understood.  

Item 7. Notwithstanding the similarly low calorie intake, the diet composition differed between the two studies - notably a high sucrose content in the Wisconsin study and the monkeys have different origins - India, China, initially suggesting that genetics and dietary composition, not merely a decrease in calories, are factors in longevity.

Response. In remembering this section is about. "Prevention;" presumably of Ageing - one would expect at least some effort to have been made as to understanding the Process of Ageing and how to Scientifically prevent it happening or even speed it up.  

Item 8. However, in a comparative analysis in 2014, the Wisconsin researchers found that the allegedly non-starved NIA control monkeys in fact are moderately underweight when compared with other monkey populations and argued this was due to the NIA's apportioned feeding protocol in contrast to Wisconsin's truly unrestricted feeding protocol.

Response. Opps Medical Science is now proving it creates Ageing as being over weight is said to be responsible for a number of illnesses. 

Item 9. They conclude that moderate calorie restriction rather than extreme calorie restriction is sufficient to produce the observed health and longevity benefits in the studied rhesus monkeys.

Response. Thus in these Monkeys - by not overly interfering with their Diet their Ageing Process was left alone and not shortened by ill Health and Scientific Intervention.

Item 10. In the book. "How and Why We Age," Hayflick says that caloric restriction may not be effective in Humans, citing data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Ageing which shows that being thin does not favour longevity.

Response.  If one were to consider this paper as a PhD Thesis and Dissertation - should one not first fully explore the process of Ageing as an entity in itself - as the book. "How and Why we age," by it title does not appear to suggest.

Item 11...

A. Similarly, it is sometimes claimed that moderate obesity in later life may improve survival, but newer research has identified confounding factors such as weight loss due to terminal disease.

B. Once these factors are accounted for, the optimal body weight above age 65 corresponds to a leaner body mass index of 23 to 27.

Response...

1. Is it not fair to say once conceived be it a Human or an Animal the only lifestyle activity that is able to interfere with the Process of Ageing is Death. 

2. In addition this Item appears somewhat confused - as to whether Medical Sciense; increased the lifespan - nothing to do with Ageing, with a thorough and sound education leading to a leaner BMI, or shortened life - as a result of poorly understood symptoms that became a Terminal Disease.

Item 12. Alternatively, the benefits of dietary restriction can also be found by changing the macro nutrient profile to reduce protein intake without any changes to calorie level, resulting in similar increases in longevity.

Response. If no studies on Humans exist. Item D. This is either guesswork or Animal Studies - thus we are able to consider the reduction of Protein intake may well only be short-term benefit to Humans until the entire Body Chemistry alters to accommodate the loss of Protein and in so doing create another demand. - this being the reason why no studies exist.

Item 13. Dietary protein restriction not only inhibits mTOR activity but also IGF-1, two mechanisms implicated in Ageing.

Response. If one accept the principle of this should one not question the word. "Implicated," which could mean - not too sure.

Item 14. Specifically, reducing leucine intake is sufficient to inhibit mTOR activity, achievable through reducing animal food consumption.

1. Leucine is an α-amino acid used in the biosynthesis of Proteins. It contains an α-amino group.

2. Which is in the protonated −NH+ 3 form under biological conditions, an α-carboxylic acid group - which is in the deprotonated −COO− form under biological conditions and an isobutyl side chain, classifying it as a nonpolar at physiological pH Amino Acid.

3. It is essential in Humans - meaning the body cannot synthesize it and thus must obtain from the diet.

4. Leucine is a major component of the subunits in ferritin, astacin and other, "buffer" proteins.

Response... 

1. If we accept as Medical Sciense suggests - Leucine can only be obtained through Diet; how does this stack up against, there are from our genetic construction some two thousand body chemicals, almost all of them Proteins and all of them rely on Amino Acids for the Body to utilise them, therefore when one considers Leucine is but one chemical how can on its own have any affect on any other of the Genes.

2. The Mind is far to clever for that - whilst the Body taking it may well show signs of change; the reality is the Mind has made Chemical Adjustments to compensate the for the Poison as it will only take what it requires for natural balance.

3. Thus is not and cannot be reconciled as an Ageing Preventative.    

Item 15. The Mediterranean diet is credited with lowering the risk of Heart disease and early Death.

Response...

1. There may well be a semblance of truth in this statement.

2.  However to scientifically prove this - study subjects would have to surely consume precisely the same diet and include the Minds activity in every other country for a Person's entire life; for this scientific thinking to have validity in the prevention of Ageing.  Let alone the creation of Heart Disease and Early Death.

Item 16. The major contributors to mortality risk reduction appear to be a higher consumption of vegetables, fish, fruits, nuts and monounsaturated fatty acids, i.e., olive oil.

Response. However to scientifically prove this study subjects would have to surely consume precisely the same diet in every other country for a Person's entire life for this scientific thinking to have validity in the prevention of Ageing - not withstanding the contents of each individuals Mind. 

Item 17. The amount of sleep has an impact on mortality.

Response.  Sleep quality is amongst the most poorly Scientifically understood of Human activities and the resulting Fatigue still with no known cause and no known cure being the outcome, thus as a Preventative to Ageing this does not even rate as guesswork let alone a Scientific Hypothesis.  

Item 18. People who live the longest report sleeping for six to seven hours each night.

Response. As Medical Sciense is unable to offer a treatment that will long-term assist a Person to Sleep the required time - one has to consider there is no validity in the Prevention of Ageing offered in this especially if one factors in. "A Person is able to Sleep the required time for their individual requirements relating to their Health and Lifespan or they cannot" and as of this date. Medical Sciense cannot help this process.    

Item 19. Lack of Sleep <5 hours more than doubles the risk of death from cardiovascular disease, but too much sleep >9 hours is associated with a doubling of the risk of death, though not primarily from cardiovascular disease.

Response. Pure Medical Sciense. "if the right one does not get you then the left one will." However how does this contribute to the understanding of the prevention of Ageing. 

Item 20. Sleeping more than 7 to 8 hours per day has been consistently associated with increased mortality, though the cause is probably other factors such as depression and socioeconomic status, which would correlate statistically.

Response. When one considers Depression is still so mysterious as to cause and cure to include it in the Prevention of Ageing one has to considerer just who is kidding who and where is statistics important in the Prevention of Ageing.

Item 21. Sleep monitoring of hunter-gatherer tribes from Africa and from South America has shown similar sleep patterns across continents: their average sleeping duration is 6.4 hours - with a summer/winter difference of 1 hour, afternoon naps - siestas, are uncommon and insomnia is very rare - tenfold less than in industrial societies.

Response. But where is the Scientific Evidence this activity is a Preventative against Ageing.

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Physical Exercise.

Section. 14.

Item 1. Physical exercise may increase life expectancy.

Response. But where is the Scientific Evidence this activity is a Preventative against the Process of Ageing.

Item 2. People who participate in moderate to high levels of physical exercise have a lower mortality rate compared to individuals who are not physically active.

Response. But where is the Scientific Evidence this activity is a Preventative against the Process of Ageing.

Item 3. Moderate levels of exercise have been correlated with preventing Ageing and improving quality of life by reducing - inflammatory potential.

Response. One has to feel this is no more than guesswork - as the cause and effective treatment of Inflammation is yet to be established. 

Item 4. The majority of the benefits from exercise are achieved with around 3500 metabolic equivalent - MET minutes per week.

Response. But only if one can exercise - what happens when one cannot and how is this preventative against the Process of Ageing.

Item 5. For example, climbing stairs 10 minutes, vacuuming 15 minutes, gardening 20 minutes, running 20 minutes and walking or bicycling for 25 minutes on a daily basis would together achieve about 3000 MET minutes a week.

Response...

1. If one is referring to an average rather than an illness compromised Person such a Person would be on the go all day leaving one to ask. How does this add to the knowledge of the Process of Ageing.

2....

A. Now unless my mathematical skills have let me down even more than usual - this is even worse than guesswork on behalf of Medical Sciense and its desire to understand the Process of Ageing.

B. For if one adds the numbers up: 10 + 15 + 20 + 20 + 25 = 90 x 7 = 63. Convert that to minutes and it amounts to 6300. Over double the Scientific Values.    

Item 6. Avoidance of chronic stress - as opposed to acute stress is associated with a slower loss of telomeres in most but not all studies and with decreased cortisol levels.

Response. When one accepts the aged principle of what came first the Chicken or the Egg and apply it to Chronic and Acute Stress - both not as yet understood otherwise a name change would not have been required; how does this relate to Physical Activity in the process of understanding the process of Ageing.  

Item 7. A chronically high cortisol level compromises the immune system, causes cardiac damage/arteriosclerosis and is associated with Facial Ageing and the latter in turn is a marker for increased morbidity and mortality.

Response...

A. A chronically High Cortisol level is a symptom not a disorder.

B. Yet on its own of no real value in the understanding of Cardiac Damage,

C. Arteriosclerosis or Facial Ageing - thus is a welcome relief. As at last the so called scientific paper is starting to talk some sense in the Process of Ageing; albeit in a healthy individual, nothing to do with fitness involved or the Process of Ageing. 

Item 8. Stress can be countered by social connection, spirituality and - for Men more clearly than for Women; married life, all of which are associated with longevity.

Response. Is this not what they call Poetic License or Padding to fill much needed words in the process of a PhD dissertation word limit. Thus of no Scientific Interest let alone Novel Interest.

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Section. 15.

Item 1. The following list of drugs and interventions have been shown to retard or reverse the biological effects of Ageing in animal models, but none has yet been proven to do so in Humans.

Response...

A. Where are the calculations from the research to demonstrate the variables between the lifespan of Humans against Animals and would this not be different when equated against many different Animals.

B. Yet in Medical Sciense own words demonstrates this complete process is a waste of time and only for research funding and not to enhance the knowledge of the process of Ageing. "As none has yet been proven to do so in Humans."

Item 2. Evidence in both Animals and Humans suggests that resveratrol may be a caloric restriction mimetic.

Response. Are we the readers already to have forgotten the wise Scientific words. "But none has yet been proven to do so in Humans."

Item 3. As of 2015 metformin was under study for its potential effect on slowing Ageing in the worm C.elegans and theCricket.

Response. Are we the readers already to have forgotten the wise Scientific words. "But none has yet been proven to do so in Humans."

Item 4. Its effect on otherwise Healthy Humans is unknown.

Response. Are we the readers already to have forgotten the wise Scientific words. "But none has yet been proven to do so in Humans." No, we have no need, as. Medical Sciense fills in the Gaps for us.

Item 5. Rapamycin was first shown to extend lifespan in eukaryotes in 2006 by Powers et al. who showed a dose-responsive effect of rapamycin on lifespan extension in yeast cells

Response. Are we the readers already to have forgotten the wise Scientific words. "But none has yet been proven to do so in Humans." No, we have no need, as. Medical Sciense fills in the Gaps for us.

Item 6. In a 2009 study, the lifespans of mice fed rapamycin were increased between 28 and 38% from the beginning of treatment, or 9 to 14% in total increased maximum lifespan. Of particular note, the treatment began in mice aged 20 months, the equivalent of 60 human years.

Response. Are we the readers already to have forgotten the wise Scientific words. "But none has yet been proven to do so in Humans." No, we have no need, as. Medical Sciense fills in the Gaps for us.

Item 7. Rapamycin has subsequently been shown to extend mouse lifespan in several separate experiments and is now being tested for this purpose in nonhuman primates - the marmoset monkey.

Response. Are we the readers already to have forgotten the wise Scientific words. "But none has yet been proven to do so in Humans." No Medical Sciense fills in the Gaps for us.

Item 8. Cancer geneticist Ronald A. DePinho and his colleagues published research in mice where telomerase activity was first genetically removed.

Response. Are we the readers already to have forgotten the wise Scientific words. "But none has yet been proven to do so in Humans." No Medical Sciense fills in the Gaps for us.

Item 9. Then, after the mice had prematurely aged, they restored telomerase activity by reactivating the telomerase gene.

Response. Are we the readers already to have forgotten the wise Scientific words. "But none has yet been proven to do so in Humans." No, we have no need, as. Medical Sciense fills in the Gaps for us.

Item 10...

1. As a result, the mice were rejuvenated: Shriveled testes grew back to normal and the animals regained their fertility.

2. Other organs, such as the spleen, liver, intestines and brain, recuperated from their degenerated state.

3. "The finding offers the possibility that Normal Human Ageing could be slowed by reawakening the enzyme in cells where it has stopped working;" says Ronald DePinho.

4. However, activating telomerase in Humans could potentially encourage the growth of tumours.

Response. Once again Medical Sciense fills in the Gaps for us.

Item 11. Most known genetic interventions in C. elegans increase lifespan by 1.5 to 2.5 - fold.

Response. Is it possible activating Genetic interventions to increase lifespan in Humans could potentially encourage the growth of tumours.

Item 12. As of 2009, the record for lifespan extension in C. elegans is a single-gene mutation which increases adult survival by tenfold.

Response. Is it possible activating Genetic interventions to increase lifespan in Humans could potentially encourage the growth of tumours.

Item 13. The strong conservation of some of the mechanisms of Ageing discovered in model organisms imply that they may be useful in the enhancement of Human survival.

Response. Whilst this process may increase the Lifespan of Humans where is the evidence the Ageing Process is being understood and moreover - will an increase lifespan in Humans potentially encourage the growth of tumours.

Item 14. However, the benefits may not be proportional; longevity gains are typically greater in C. elegans than fruit flies and greater in fruit flies than in mammals.

Response. Its effect on otherwise Healthy Humans is unknown.

Item 15. One explanation for this is that mammals, being much longer-lived, already have many traits which promote lifespan.

Response. Well well this is a revelation if one reads it slowly.

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Section. 16.

Item 1. The US National Institute on Ageing currently funds an intervention testing program, whereby investigators nominate compounds  - based on specific molecular Ageing theories to have evaluated with respect to their effects on lifespan and age-related biomarkers in outbred mice.

Response. Is it not fair to say when one takes into consideration this; "Its effect on otherwise Healthy Humans is unknown." All research is for Prizes and Kudos and Funding only and nothing to do with improving the understanding of the process of Ageing.

Item 2. Previous age-related testing in mammals has proved largely not to be  reproducible, because of small numbers of animals and lax mouse husbandry conditions.

Response. Is it not fair to say when one takes into consideration this; "Its effect on otherwise Healthy Humans is unknown." All research is for Prizes and Kudos and Funding only and nothing to do with improving the understanding of the process of Ageing.

Item 3. The intervention testing program aims to address this by conducting parallel experiments at three internationally recognised mouse ageing-centres, the Barshop Institute at UTHSCSA, the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and the Jackson Laboratory.

Response. How much more intellectually inept does one have to be before the Penny drops - studying Mice against Humans is of not even Novel Rusty Bucket Prize value.

Item 4. Several companies and organisations, such as Google, Calico, Human Longevity, Craig Venter, Gero. F. SENS Research Foundation, and Science for Life Extension in Russia, declared stopping or delaying Ageing as their goal

Response. Although nothing to do with the Process of Ageing - at last someone is demonstrating a little bit of sense.

Item 5. Prizes for extending lifespan and slowing Ageing in mammals exist. The Methuselah Foundation offers the Mprize. Recently, the $1 Million Palo Alto Longevity Prize was launched.

Response...

1. Whilst one has to consider the production of Meat from animals - will; not old meat be uneatable, after that who in reality cares whether an animal ages quicker or slower.

2. And what about the long-term product of this - will it not be the same as in Humans thus will increase lifespan but potentially encourage the growth of tumours.

Item 6. It is a research incentive prize to encourage teams from all over the world to compete in an all-out effort to; "hack the code," that regulates our health and lifespan.

Response. When one takes into consideration to gain a: PhD, Masters degree a Professor or a Fellow educational status one has to research the available historical data that has never once provided a secure understanding as to the cause or created a cure for any illness - would there be any encouragement to Hack the code that regulates our health and lifespan; just to win a Prize. Instead of creating New Sciense for the future - we will not have; at the rate of non cure of any illness, to date.

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Ageing and Society.

Section. 17.

An Elderly Man.

Item 1. Different cultures express age in different ways.

Response. This may well be so but is the Process of Ageing different for said cultures.

Item 2. The Age of an adult Human is commonly measured in whole years since the day of birth.

Response. And it is scientifically proven - the more Birthdays one has, the older one gets. 

Item 3. Arbitrary divisions set to mark periods of life may include: juvenile - via infancy, childhood, preadolescence, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood.

Response. And of course using this method it is scientifically proven - the process of Ageing is not continuous. 

Item 4. More casual terms may include "teenagers," "tweens," "twentysomething," "thirtysomething," as well as "denarian," "vicenarian," "tricenarian," "quadragenarian," etc.

Response.  Is it not fair to suggest there is something more fundamental going on rather that just descriptive words as these - leaving us to ponder; what has Society and Culture to do with the Process of Ageing.

Item 5. Most legal systems define a specific age for when an individual is allowed or obliged to do particular activities.

Response. Of course this is the truth but does it answer the Process of Ageing. 

Item 6. These age specifications include voting age, drinking age, age of consent, age of majority, age of criminal responsibility, marriageable age, age of candidacy and mandatory retirement age.

Response. Of course this is the truth but does it answer the Process of Ageing. 

Item 7. Admission to a movie for instance, may depend on age according to a motion picture rating system.

Response. Of course this is the truth but does it answer the Process of Ageing. 

Item 8. A bus fare might be discounted for the young or old.

Response. Of course this is he truth but does it answer the Process of Ageing. 

Item 9. Each nation, government and non-governmental Organisation has different ways of classifying age.

Response. Of course this is the truth but does it answer the Process of Ageing. 

Item 10. In other words, chronological Ageing may be distinguished from; "Social Ageing," cultural age-expectations of how People should act as they grow older and "biological ageing" an organism's physical state as it ages.

Response. Of course this is the truth but does fully answer the Process of Ageing with Scientific Inquiry or just tell us about it. 

Item 11. In a UNFPA report about Ageing in the 21st century, it highlighted the need to "Develop, a new rights-based culture of Ageing and a change of Mindset and societal attitudes towards Ageing and older Persons, from welfare recipients to active, contributing members of society.

Response...

A.  Of course this is the truth but does fully answer the Process of Ageing with Scientific Inquiry or just tell us about it.

B. Careful Medical Science for it appears you are digging a hole you will never be able to rise from. "Mindset.

Item 12. UNFPA said that this "requires, among others, working towards the development of international Human rights instruments and their translation into national laws and regulations and affirmative measures that challenge age discrimination and which recognises older People as autonomous subjects.

Response.  Of course this is the truth but does fully answer the Process of Ageing with Scientific Inquiry or just tell us about it

Item 13. Older Persons make contributions to society including caregiving and volunteering.

Response.  Of course this is the truth but does fully answer the Process of Ageing with Scientific Inquiry or just tell us about it

Item 14. For example, "A study of Bolivian migrants who had moved to Spain; found that 69% left their Children at home, usually with grandparents.

Response. Of course this is the truth but does fully answer the Process of Ageing with Scientific Inquiry or just tell us about it. 

Item 15. In rural China, grandparents care for 38% of Children aged under five whose Parents have gone to work in cities.

Response. Of course this is the truth but does fully answer the Process of Ageing with Scientific Inquiry or just tell us about it. 

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Section. 18.


A map showing median age figures for 2015.

Item 1. Population Ageing is the increase in the number and proportion of older People in society.

Response. How then is this linked to the Process of Ageing itself.

Item 2. Population Ageing has three possible causes: migration, longer life expectancy - decreased death rate and decreased birth rate.

Response.  How then is this linked to the Process of Ageing itself.

Item 3. Ageing has a significant impact on society

Response. How then is this linked to the Process of Ageing itself.

Item 4. Young People tend to have fewer legal privileges - if they are below the age of majority, they are more likely to push for political and social change, to develop and adopt new technologies and to need education.

Response. Makes a lot of sense from an  economic point of view of driving a countries or personal and financial well being -  difficult to see how this is this linked to the Process of Ageing itself.

Item 5. Older People have different requirements from society and government and frequently have differing values as well, such as for property and pension rights.

Response...

1. Many People because of their working life productivity and paying into a second Pension or Health care schemes - surely enhance the financial prosperity of a country thus add no negative financial weight to the economy.

2. Of course we must also recognise the opposite effect when a Person contributes little yet draws more in Benefits and Health care.

3. What if anything does this contribute to understanding required of the Ageing Process. 

Item 6. In the 21st century, one of the most significant population trends is Ageing.

Response.  Now this is a serious scientifically proven contribution to the understanding of the Ageing Process.

Item 7. Currently, over 11% of the world's current population are People aged 60 and older and the United Nations Population Fund - UNFPA estimates that by 2050 that number will rise to approximately 22%

A. The United Nations Population Fund UNFPA, formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.

B.  The UNFPA says it; "is the lead UN agency for delivering a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every Childbirth is safe and every young Person's potential is fulfilled." 

C. Their work involves the improvement of reproductive health; including creation of national strategies - protocols and providing supplies and services.

D. The organization has recently been known for its worldwide campaign againstChild Marriage, Obstetric Fistula and Female Genital Mutilation.

Response...

1.  Interesting the United Nations Population Fund should mention Obstetric Fistula and Female Genital Mutilation. as part of Ageing and Economics; when there are so many illness that on their own are very destructive to the worlds economy - or is there something we are not being told.

2. Let us explore this phenomenon; other wise it is just Scientific Padding to make the paper fit the PhD Dissertation of 80,000 words.  

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Obstetric Fistula.

Section. 19.

Item 1...

A. The United Nations Population Fund - UNFPA defines obstetric fistula as: A Childbirth injury medical condition usually caused by prolonged, obstructed Labour in which a fistula - hole, develops between the rectum and vagina, the ureter and the vagina or between the bladder and vagina after prolonged, severe or failed Childbirth.

B. Without timely medical intervention - typically an emergency Caesarean section.

Item 2. During unassisted, prolonged, obstructed labour, the sustained pressure of the Baby’s head on the Mother’s pelvic bone damages soft tissues, creating a hole or fistula between the vagina and the bladder and/or rectum.

Item 3. The pressure deprives blood flow to the tissue, leading to necrosis - dead tissues causing them to disintegrate and rot away, leaving a fistula, which causes a constant leaking of urine and/or faeces through the vagina.

Item 4. This injury is associated with episiotomy and forceps/vacuum extraction of the Baby from the vagina.

Item 5...

A.  An obstetric Fistula is almost entirely preventable.

B. According to health advocates, its persistence is a sign that health systems are failing to meet Women’s essential needs.

Item 6. Signs and symptoms of Obstetric Fistula include:

Item 7. Flatulence, urinary or faecal incontinence, which may be continual or only happen at night.

Item 8. Foul-smelling Vaginal discharge.

Item 9. Repeated Vaginal or urinary tract infections.

Item 10. Irritation or Pain in the Vagina or surrounding areas.

Item 11. Pain during sexual activity.

Item 12. Other effects of Obstetric Fistulae include stillborn babies due to prolonged labour, which happens 85% to 100% of the time, severe ulcerations of the vaginal tract, "foot drop," which is the paralysis of the lower limbs caused by nerve damage, making it impossible for women to walk, infection of the fistula forming an abscess and up to two-thirds of the Women become amenorrhoeic.

Item 13. The syndrome is demonstrated by the Müllerian ducts not developing, which prevents menstruation.

Item 14. Amenorrhoea can also be caused by physical deformities.

Item 15. The syndrome usually develops during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Item 16. But other times primary Amenorrhoea, which is characteristic of the disorder, may prevent pregnancy for life.

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Stress.

Item 1. Secondary amenorrhea is also caused by: stress, extreme weight loss, or excessive exercise.

Item 2. Causes of secondary amenorrhea can also result in primary amenorrhea, especially if present before onset of menarche - the first occurrence of menstruation.

Item 3. Obstetric Fistulae have far-reaching physical, social, economic and psychological consequences for the Women affected.

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General consequences.

Item 1. According to UNFPA, “Due to the prolonged obstructed labour, the Baby almost inevitably dies and the Woman is left with chronic incontinence.

Item 2. Unable to control the flow of urine or faeces, or both, a Female may be abandoned by the husband, family and ostracized by the community.

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Physical consequences.

Item 1. The most direct consequence of an Obstetric Fistula is the constant leaking of urine, faces and blood as a result of the hole that forms between the vagina and bladder or rectum.

Item 2. This leaking has both physical and societal penalties.

Item 3. The acid in the urine faces and blood causes severe burn wounds on the legs from the continuous dripping.

Item 4. Nerve damage that can result from the leaking can cause Women to struggle with walking and eventually lose mobility.

Item 5. In an attempt to avoid the dripping, Women limit their intake of water and liquid, which can ultimately lead to dangerous cases of dehydration.

Item 6. Ulceration and infections can persist, as well as kidney disease and kidney failure, which can each lead to death.

Item 7. Further, only a quarter of Women who suffer a Fistula in their first birth are able to have a living Baby and therefore have minuscule chances of conceiving a healthy baby later on.

Item 8. Some Women, due to obstetric fistulae and other complications from Childbirth, do not survive.

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Social consequences.

Item 1. Physical consequences of Obstetric Fistulae lead to severe sociocultural stigmatization for various reasons.

Item 2. For example, in Burkina Faso, most citizens do not believe an Obstetric Fistula to be a medical condition, but as a divine punishment or a curse for disloyal or disrespectful behaviour.

A...

1. Burkina Faso: Reputed to be amongst the most dangerous countries in the world is a landlocked country located in West Africa.

2. It covers an area of around 105,900 sq mi and is surrounded by six countries: Mali to the north; Niger to the east; Benin to the southeast; Togo and Ghana to the south and Ivory Coast to the southwest.

3. Its capital is Ouagadougou. In 2014 its population was estimated at just over 17.3 million

Item 3. Other sub-Saharan cultures view offspring as an indicator of a family's wealth.

Item 4. Other misconceptions about Obstetric Fistulae are that they are caused by venereal diseases or are divine punishment for sexual misconduct.

Item 5. As a result, many girls are divorced or abandoned by their husbands and partners, disowned by family, ridiculed by friends and even isolated by health workers.

Item 6. Now marginalized members of society, girls are forced to live on the edges of their villages and towns, often to live in isolation in a hut where they will likely die from starvation or an infection in the birth canal.

Item 7. The unavoidable odour is viewed as offensive, thus their removal from society is seen as essential.

Item 8. Accounts of Women who suffer Obstetric Fistulae proclaim that their lives have been reduced - due to the leaking of urine, faces and blood incontinence and pain because they are no longer capable or allowed to participate in traditional home and Family caring activities, which also renders them unable to perform Child bearing as a wife and as a mother, thus devaluing her.

Item 9. Because such consequences highly stigmatize and marginalize the Woman, the intense loneliness and shame can lead to clinical depression and suicidal thoughts.

Item 10. Some Women have formed small groups and resorted to walking to seek medical help, where their characteristic odour makes them a target for sub-Saharan predatory wildlife, further endangering their lives.

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Psychological consequences.

Item 1. Some common psychological consequences that People with a fistula face are the despair from losing their Child, the humiliation from their smell and inability to perform their family roles.

Item 2. Additionally, a fear of developing another fistula in future pregnancies exists.

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Causes.

Item 1. In the developed world, like the USA, the number one cause of Obstetric Fistulae, particularly RVF, is the use of episiotomy and forceps.

Item 2. Obstetric Fistulae can also be caused by poorly performed abortions and pelvic fracture, cancer, or radiation therapy targeted at the pelvic area, inflammatory bowel disease - such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Item 3. Other potential causes for the development of obstetric fistulae are sexual abuse and rape, especially in conflict/post conflict areas and other trauma, such as surgical trauma.

Conclusion...

A. It is quite clear this section on Economics related to Ageing brings nothing to the discussion.

B. However consideration must be given with  inclusion of. The United Nations Population Fund UNFPA, formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, being a UN organization, could well have been interesting with the comments. "Obstetric Fistulae and Female Genital Mutilation.   


C.
According to a 2005 World Health Organization report, an estimated 72.5% of Burkina Faso's girls and women have had
female genital mutilation, administered according to traditional rituals.

D. Had it not only included the explanation of Obstetric Fistula as indeed I have - but more importantly been able to link this to: Female Genital Mutilation, The Somali lady in Section 10 and Economics, it would have brought serious consideration to Economics being discussed. However in its absence it leaves one to consider there is something seriously missing from the scientific content of this paper framework

Item 4. Ageing has occurred due to development which has enabled better nutrition, sanitation, health care, education and economic well-being.

Response.  Surely Ageing is demonstrated from conception to death - what happens in-between is of no consequence.

Item 5. Consequently, fertility rates have continued to decline and life expectancy have risen.

Response...

A.  One has to question the Scientific Sense in this; "enabled better nutrition, sanitation, health care, education and economic well-being."

B. Surely to say this on the one hand and fertility rates have continued to decline on the other is as scientifically contradictory as one could be.

Item 6. Life expectancy at birth is over 80 now in 33 countries.

Response...

A. When one considers there are reported to be 196 countries in the world for this comment to have any Scientific Inquiry Validity it should include the other 163 countries all with People Born and thus Ageing and all with illness thereby affecting the Economics of the country.

B. Otherwise to use just 33 Countries is either guesswork where the researchers have found the numbers they knew were there - thus the Scientific Inquiry is satisfied.  

Item 7. Ageing, is a "global phenomenon," occurring fastest in developing countries, including those with large youth populations and poses social and economic challenges to work which can be overcome with; "the right set of policies to equip individuals, families and societies to address these challenges and to reap its benefits."

Response...

A. Although I have yet to see a rage of. "Right Policies;" for the citizens of any country to actually reap the rewards of the intrinsic values of any country.

B. It is clear and acceptable a country the other side of the world uses a different time zone - not so clear such a country lives in a time Zone where time goes faster than one the other side of the world. 

Item 8. As life expectancy rises and birth rates decline in developed countries, the median age rises accordingly.

Response. Surely even a Five Year old Child would be able to explain - when one side of the see saw goes up the other goes down and when neither side is going up nor down; in the middle it is balanced.

Item 9. According to the United Nations, this process is taking place in nearly every country in the world.

Response.  Interesting now it suits for every country in the world to be included in the numbers.

Item 10. A rising median age can have significant social and economic implications, as the workforce gets progressively older and the number of old workers and retirees grows relative to the number of young workers.

Response. Whilst one could argue the points raised here with often Older Workers are more reliable and productive than youngsters the main thrust of the argument must surely be; "how does this link to the Natural process of Ageing. 

Item 11. Older People generally incur more health-related costs than do younger People in the workplace and can also cost more in worker's compensation and pension liabilities

Response...

A. Whilst we are obliged to accept this is the truth.

B. Should this not; as we have 2017 Medically Scientifically Proven Treatments, be prefixed with. "WHY."

C. Surely Illness is not just because a Person ages; it is the acquiring of a lifetime of poorly treated symptoms.

Item 12. In most developed countries an older workforce is somewhat inevitable.

Response.  Clearly the numbers now suit the Scientific Inquiry - as Most developed countries are quoted

Item 13. In the United States for instance, the Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that one in four American workers will be 55 or older by 2020

Response. Then although nothing to do with the process of Ageing the. "Right Policies," are not available.

Item 14. Among the most urgent concerns of older Persons worldwide is income security.

Response. Clearly the numbers now suit the Scientific Inquiry - as Most developed countries are quoted - but how des it fit into the process of Ageing

Item 15. This poses challenges for governments with Ageing populations to ensure investments in pension systems continues in order to provide economic independence and reduce poverty in old Age.

Response. Leaving one to ponder; that the. "Right Policies" are not in Place - and the Policies that are; favour diverting the intrinsic values of a country away to some Tax Haven fund; thereby keeping the population subservient - thus wanting.

Item 16. These challenges vary for developing and developed countries. UNFPA stated that, "Sustainability of these systems is of particular concern, particularly in developed countries, while social protection and old-age pension coverage remain a challenge for developing countries, where a large proportion of the labour force is found in the informal sector.

Response...

1. One might wish to argue. Most People have indeed over their working life paid more than sufficient funds into their pension fund to sustain them with more than satisfactory Financial security - where all of such funds are in turn returned to the countries melting pot of funds; either as spending in local businesses, or savings in bank accounts.

2. Although the Population of most countries are indeed rising - there are still many who fail to reach retirement age in order to draw their paid for Pension; all of which should be funds not drawn from the Pension pot and not diverted away to other hidden financial pots by clever Financial Instruments.   

Item 17. The global economic crisis has increased financial pressure to ensure economic security and access to health care in old age.

Response. One might wish to argue every Financial Crises since the one which may be considered the first of them all. "The Wall Street Crash 1929. have in reality been created in order to divert the serious financial wealth of every country away for the populations that live in the country - to the Tax Haven Bank accounts of those that control or create the. "Right Policies." Thus is nothing to do with the Process of Ageing at all.

Item 18. In order to elevate this pressure; "social protection floors must be implemented in order to guarantee income security and access to essential health and social services for all older Persons and provide a safety net that contributes to the postponement of disability and prevention of impoverishment in old age.

Response. Again one has to say, a necessity - as it is the general People of any country that are a countries economic and population driving force; not the funds that produce nothing of value to any country, no more than explain the Process of Ageing.  

Item 19. It has been argued that population ageing has undermined economic development

Response. Is it this or is there a better explanation - income from legitimate or otherwise being undermined by clever Financial Instruments in order to be diverted into Tax Haven accounts where the only thing they produce is Interest payments that have to either stay in the Secret Accounts or are diverted past the Monetary System of any given country.

Item 20. Evidence suggests that pensions, while making a difference to the well-being of older Persons, also benefit entire families especially in times of crisis when there may be a shortage or loss of employment within households.

Response. Pension surely play their part in the entire financial system of any country rather than just sitting in a off shore secret bank account.

Item 21...

1. A study by the Australian Government in 2003 estimated; that

2. "Women between the ages of 65 and 74 years contribute A$16 billion per year in unpaid caregiving and voluntary work. Similarly.

3. Men in the same age group contributed A$10 billion per year.

Response. The  true contribution of Women has always been not only undervalued but in many countries Devalued if only with Female Genital Mutilation a process or devise only  designed to keep Women in their place and plays no part in the Process of Ageing - however does most seriously destroy a countries economic development and success in the world.  

Item 22. Due to increasing share of the elderly in the population, health care expenditures will continue to grow relative to the economy in coming decades.

Response. Clearly demonstrates the total failure of Medical Science to resolve any lifetime illness concerns - still nothing to do with the Process of Ageing.

Item 23. This has been considered as a negative phenomenon and effective strategies like labour productivity enhancement should be considered to deal with negative consequences of Ageing.

Response. Do I detect a degree of common sense beginning to show through

Item 24. Conclusion...

A. Whilst one is obliged to accept Obstetric Fistula may or may not be a worldwide phenomenon and nothing directly to do with the process of Ageing.

B. It certainly is in. Burkina Faso a landlocked country in West Africa, where Female Genital Mutilation is practiced and we may well be able to include Circumcision in Males.

C. Now of course one could suggest. Female Genital Mutilation and Circumcision are not linked and Burkina Faso is only a very small country, thus of no worldwide significance. And one may well be correct.

D...

1. Whilst I am unable to ascertain when this practice first came into use.

2. I am however able to comprehend the possibility;  Circumcision and Female Genital Mutilation may only have been created many thousands of years ago to remind the Jews, Muslims  - both of the same family and other races; they can still feel the Pain of separation from their homeland in much the same way as a Person Self-harms in order to check if they are still able to feel Pain.   

E. Thereby covering up some Psychotic Person(s) demands who silenced the Order Followers to blindly followed the orders no matter if they are Morally of Legally right or wrong or whatever the circumstances. 

F. When post Circumcision and Female Genital Mutilation. Jews, Muslims including others as yet unknown; in order to relieve an anxiety created through the same circumcision, sought to show the world the Jews, if indeed they are a race of People not just a religious cult and the Muslims the same - I agree both, deserve a homeland of their own, created Circumcision and Female Genital Mutilation; in order to get the same type of understanding - but on a worldwide bases.

G. Whilst their family members and with everyone’s attention diverted by the Social Traditional Activity - yet are so blinded by the Pain post Circumcision and Female Genital Mutilation - they are unable to see the consequences of their activity is in no one’s interest.

H. Meaning - whilst this activity may well be in private or even a public tradition - mostly no one remembers; the reality is, there is not one Person in the world today in 2017 that is not on the receiving end of the consequences of such barbaric activity.

I. Thus; this mysterious as to its cause Obstetric Fistula may well have been created by Circumcision and Female Genital Mutilation with or without Anesthetics - altering the entire body chemical balance of both Male and Female making it Toxic, Caustic and perhaps Acidic - the ultimate cause of the opening between the Vagina and Anus.

J. The Pressure increased by the Birth is only as a result of the Women's inability to naturally open the Pelvic Girdle as the Acidic Body Chemistry that involves every cell in the Body as a result of the Fear imposed by the Blunt Forced Trauma.          

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Section. 20.

Item 1. In the field of sociology and mental health, Ageing is seen in five different views: Ageing as maturity, Ageing as decline, Ageing as a life-cycle event, Ageing as generation and Ageing as survival.

Response. All of which contributes nothing to the understanding of the Process of Ageing.

Item 2. Positive correlates with Ageing often include economics, employment, marriage, children, education and sense of control, as well as many others.

Response. All of which contributes nothing to the understanding of the Process of Ageing.

Item 3. The social science of Ageing includes disengagement theory, activity theory, selectivity theory and continuity theory.

Response. Says what in the understanding of the Process of Ageing.

Item 4. Retirement, a common transition faced by the elderly, may have both positive and negative consequences

Response. Leaving one to question. "There are Positives to becoming Old. Why - should it be expected as a Person Ages they stay or become too ill to function and what is this to do with the Process of Ageing.  

Item 5. As cyborgs currently are on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of Ageing and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of Ageing has been suggested

Response...

Item 6. A Cyborg is a fictional or hypothetical Person whose physical abilities are extended beyond normal Human limitations by mechanical elements built into the body.

B.  Surely only the desperation of Medical Sciense having never once in its history created a cure for any illness have to now rely on mechanical bodies that in turn when they fail they will have to become electronic and mechanical engineers.

C.  Thus Ageing will become redundant or is it another name change like Pain to acute or Chronic - as the earlier one Medical Sciense could not understand nor create a cure for.

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Section. 21.

With age inevitable biological changes occur that increase the risk of illness and disability. UNFPA states that:-

Item 1. "A life-cycle approach to health care - one that starts early, continues through the reproductive years and lasts into old Age - is essential for the physical and emotional well-being of older Persons and, indeed, all People. Public policies and programs should additionally address the needs of older impoverished People who cannot afford health care.

Response...

A.  A perfect example of the success of Scientific Medicine; one is born traverse through life; collects a number of symptoms that are never cured.

B. Where - as a life extends beyond the ability of our dedicated Doctors to manage the symptoms at all - let alone well and no one cares; as the care would erode the profits.

C. A Confirmation this is nothing to do with the process of Ageing. 

Item 2. Many societies in Western Europe and Japan have Ageing populations.

Response...

A.  Much as maybe - however are we truly able to demonstrate this is as a result of Scientific Medicine or is there something we all do not want to hear at work.

B. Moreover once again is nothing to do with the process of Ageing on of having Aged. That are Two different entities.

Item 3. While the effects on society are complex, there is a concern about the impact on health care demand.

Response. Be more concerned about the Process of Ageing as being only related to the progression of Time and then the real answers may well fall into place to all of these question with no answers. 

Item 4. The large number of suggestions in the literature for specific interventions to cope with the expected increase in demand for long-term care in Ageing societies can be organised into and under four headings: Improve system performance; Redesign service delivery; Support informal caregivers and Shift demographic parameters

Response. Would it not be so much better for humanity; if - instead of having to rely of management systems we all understood; not only the true Process of Ageing but at the same time, why is it we stop Ageing by Dying. Because the processes that should have all of our lives kept us well, let us down on a constant bases.

Item 5. However, the annual growth in national health spending is not mainly due to increasing demand from Ageing populations, but rather has been driven by rising incomes, costly new medical technology, a shortage of health care workers and informational asymmetries - Lack of equality or equivalence between parts or aspects of something, between providers and Patients

Response. Or would it be better said Medical Sciense and the service our Medical Profession provide is - apart from all of the churches, the only business that has an increasing fee despite constant failure to cure any illness and it is this at the heart of the increasing health care demands that cannot be met.  

Item 6...

A. A number of health problems become more prevalent as People get older.

B. These include mental health problems as well as physical health problems, especially Dementia.

Response. Confirmation of the above response

Item 7. It has been estimated that population Ageing only explains 0.2 percentage points of the annual growth rate in medical spending of 4.3% since 1970. In addition, certain reforms to the Medicare system in the United States decreased elderly spending on home health care by 12.5% per year between 1996 and 2000

Response. Planned obsolescence and nothing to do with the Process of Ageing. 

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Section. 22.

Item 1. Positive self-perception of health has been correlated with higher well-being and reduced mortality in the elderly.

Response. Yes this is so. However; if one cannot automatically do this, one becomes a victim of the system and ill health, that destroys ones fundamental right to Progressively Age until it is time it is time we decide - to leave this place we call home.

Item 2. Various reasons have been proposed for this association; People who are objectively healthy may naturally rate their health better than that of their ill counterparts, though this link has been observed even in studies which have controlled for socioeconomic status, psychological functioning and health status

Response. More Scientific Neurononsense - one cannot be ill and well both at the same time to know the difference. 

Item 3. This finding is generally stronger for Men than Women, though this relationship is not universal across all studies and may only be true in some circumstances

Response. As contradictory as it comes.

Item 4. As People age, subjective health remains relatively stable, even though objective health worsens

Response. More Scientific Contradictions.

Item 5. In fact, perceived health improves with Age when objective health is controlled in the equation

Response. Does it now but what is or where is the Scientific Proof of the thesis Claim.

Item 6...

A. This phenomenon is known as; the "Paradox of Ageing."

B. This may be a result of social comparison; for instance, the older People get, the more they may consider themselves in better health than their same-aged peers

Response. The only Paradox within studies as these is anything useful is made of the findings. Same as saying The older one gets the more birthdays one has.

Item 7. Elderly People often associate their functional and physical decline with the normal Ageing process

Response. All thanks to the Medial Profession berating us all with this as we slowly and progressively age.

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Section. 23...

Item 1. The concept of successful Ageing can be traced back to the 1950s and was popularised in the 1980s. 
Response. The medical Six Week Syndrome rears its ugly head - only that what changed in the recent past can have effect on ones 
health and mental abilities - Scientific Studies, clearly continue to demonstrate.
Item 2. Traditional definitions of successful Ageing have emphasised absence of physical and cognitive disabilities

Response. Is perhaps this saying - many years ago People aged with less illness and thinking disabilities than today and thereby confirming the success of Modern Medical Sciense.

Item 3. In their 1987 article, Rowe and Kahn characterised successful Ageing as involving three components: a) freedom from disease and disability, b) high cognitive and physical functioning and c) social and productive engagement

Response...

A. Yet Rowe and Khan failed to comprehend; this is once again back to front Scientific Medical Thinking - as it is not the process of being well that should be studied, as these three items are fundamental rights, not gifts for being a good Boy or Girl.

B. Thus if an of these tree items exist the Fundamental rights have either not been installed or removed and it is by this process successful Ageing is interfered with.  

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Section. 24.

Item 1. The ancient Greek dramatist Euripides - 5th century BC, describes the multiply-headed mythological monster Hydra as having a regenerative capacity which makes it immortal, which is the historical background to the name of the biological genus Hydra.

Response. When is a Myth not a Myth. When Medical Sciense researchers require to pad their thesis and dissertation to gather funding for their desired PhD and later Noble Prize. 

Item 2. The Book of Job - 6th century BC describes Human lifespan as inherently limited and makes a comparison with the innate immortality that a felled tree may have when undergoing vegetative regeneration

Response. I rest my case.

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Section. 25.

One is obliged to suggest the Process of Ageing can be summed up as: A Child is conceived spends Nine months gestation in confinement of the Mothers Womb, is born and from the moment of conception until they die for what ever reason - continue to Progressively Age. As this is set against time. Nothing can ,ever will or should, interfere with this process.

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Section. 26.

Question. 1. Would it be fair to suggest as comprehensive as this paper is - you have been highly critical of its contents?

Answer. 1. Is it not fair to suggest - it is not so much I have been critical of this dissertation paper that surely applied Scientific Inquiry to the research required to produce the paper, all I have done is filled in the gaps; the original paper did not self fill or the researchers were just unwittingly working as Order Followers as to how their University or Medical Training Schools demanded the research to be presented. I do not have such restrictions. Thus I conclude it is not I that has been critical it is the researchers themselves.

Question. 2. Accepted but are you able to complete this and more important answer what may or may not be missing either by lack of knowledge - acceptable or on purpose - not acceptable?     

Answer. 2...

A. There is a possibility the foundation content of this paper being based on Medical Sciense may well have been at sometime a PhD project structured with a Claim as to.  "What Ageing is" and,  a Dissertation, "Being a clear demonstration - satisfactory Scientific Inquiry has been applied in the broadest sense to the available historical literature.

B. Such Dissertation would likely have consisted of up to 80,000 words and contained many references to the past literature for presentation to the designated review body responsible for awarding the PhD.  

Question. 3. Is there an understanding we can take from this

Answer. 3. Yes all Scientific papers it appears are approved on the bases of One student presented PhD research Paper that reviewed the past or historical, published - Literature or Data.

Question. 4. What has that told us

Answer. 4...

A. It clearly demonstrates - if any or all of past studies never once provided a foundation for a secure understanding as to the cause of any illness that led on to a definitive cure = no more illness and no more medications.

B. Then one is left to accept - there is only failure to comprehend the research and apply it to current New thinking and data knowledge study - thus nothing changes

Question. 5. How can this change then

Answer. 5...

A. As Apicare Journal based in Pakistan posted to my Facebook Timeline some time ago. "Medical Sciense has been so successful over the years today nearly everyone is ill."  

B. Thus it is clear either the old papers require to have the gaps so often seemingly purposely left - filled in or a completely New Sciense of understanding the Body has to be promoted

Question. 6. That is too come I feel sure but where does this paper take us in order to fill the gaps

Answer. 6.  Yes there is a gaping hole left in this paper - although it was noticed on a couple of occasions the researchers unwittingly touched onto it; rather like a butterfly on the nectar of a flower.

Question. 7. And that is?

Answer. 7. Perhaps we should to ensure our scientific inquiry is as complete a research as one can gather on what the world has to offer on this subject - in question and answer form; where there will be the possibility of repeats and seemingly competing and contradictory pieces of information. 

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Section. 27.

Question. 1. What causes our skin to Age?

Answer. 1. There are many common factors in premature Ageing - some things we cannot do anything about; others we can influence.

Question. 2. More than half of us look older than we really - but. "WHY?"

Answer. 2. Because we either engage in behaviors that increase our Ageing, or we do not actively support a more youthful body - through daily inaction.

Question. 3. Is it not said. "Knowledge is power?"

Answer. 3. This is true it is also stated. "The more that is known about fighting the Ageing process, the more control one can take toward maintaining a healthier, younger Body and Mind.

Question. 4. What then is Ageing?

Answer. 4. Ageing is the natural process of growing older

Question. 5. How may we describe Ageing?

Answer. 5.  There are many factors that play a role in whether we age gracefully or if we are the one out of two People who age faster than our biological age

Question. 6. So is this process set

Answer. 6. One thing that we cannot change is the Natural Ageing process

Question. 7.  How is Ageing demonstrated?

Answer. 7. By playing a key role and with time, showing visible lines on our face

Question. 8.  It is natural for our face to lose some of its youthful fullness

Answer. 8. It is essential - for if it did not as we grow older and supposedly gathering more life Knowledge Integrity and wisdom - no one would accept us as having creditability. 

Question. 9. Why is it we notice our skin becoming thinner and drier.

Answer. 9. It appears much is made of genes that largely control when these changes occur.

Question. 10. Knowing how essential it is for Medical Sciense to have a name to work with does Ageing have any names?

Answer. 10. It appears there are two:

1. The medical term for this type of aging is; “Intrinsic Ageing.”

2. The medical term for this type of aging is; “Extrinsic Ageing.”

Question. 11. Are we able to influence any of these two types of Ageing that affects our skin.

Answer. 11. It is said with. "Extrinsic Ageing." Our environment and lifestyle choices can cause the skin to age prematurely.

Question. 12.  Have any ways to reduce premature skin Ageing been suggested

Answer. 12.  It appears there are studies that suggest. By taking some preventive actions, the effects that this type of Ageing has on our skin can be slowed.

Question. 13.  Is that suggesting. Premature Ageing and Attitude are in some manner linked

Answer. 13...

A. Is it just possible my past near Thirty Five years of telling the Medical Profession - the Mind is the creator of all ills and any cure is vested within.

B. Now it appears it is being reported. "The Mind plays a significant role in whether we are Ageing faster or slower and we can use the Mind to help us accelerate or decelerate the process.

Question. 14.  Are there any Scientific suggestions as to how this can be demonstrated

Answer. 14.  Yes there are a number

1. Happier People are quite simply younger looking People.

2. The more one holds hope, optimism and joy at the top of the list of priorities, the younger the face will appear.

3. Moreover, happier People live longer often with fewer health problems like heart disease, high blood pressure and even aching joints and bones.

4. Perpetual anger and distress can form permanently on the face in the form of fine lines and deep wrinkles.

5. When the face expresses chronic sad or angry emotions, the constant scowling can turn into wrinkles formed by muscle memory.

6. A happier face is devoid of wrinkled eyebrows and scowl marks because the muscles have spent more time in a relaxed state.

7. This does not mean that one bad day will create a face full of wrinkles, but how a face carries an expression more than 50% of the time can determine how prematurely wrinkles form, where and how deeply

Question. 15. Is there any real scientific truth in any of these seven items?

Answer. 15.  Of course there is - it is as we are led to believe all is Scientifically Proven, is it not.

Question. 16. That came too easily from you - what is the catch?

Answer. 17. Sadly Medical Science only looks for evidence to confirm what is already believed, while ignoring information that discredits past or current beliefs.

Question. 18. Means?

Answer. 18.  The older we get the older we look as a natural Process that cannot and must not be interfered with - thus either Automatically. a Persons Mind maintains youthfulness called Ageing gracefully or it does not for reason as yet unknown by Medical Science.

Question. 19.   Is it fair to say. The Sun plays a major role in prematurely Ageing of skin

Answer. 19.  This rather depends on whether one is seeking evidence to confirm what is already believed by ignoring information that discredits past or current beliefs.

Question. 20. Means?

Answer. 20.  Prolonged exposure to the Sun may well cause Ageing wrinkles - however this is meaningless unless a Persons illness history or scientific or social drug use, the resulting body chemistry and the effects of  such complex preparations and not only the cause of such activity - but also the reaction to medication; is taken into consideration with other things that we do that can also can Age Skin more quickly than it naturally would.

Question. 21. What can be done to help Patients prevent premature skin Ageing

Answer. 21.  It is within the literature - dermatologists offer their Patients the following tips:

A. Protect the skin from the sun every day.

B. Whether spending a day at the beach or running errands, sun protection is essential.

C. The skin can be protected by seeking shade, covering up with clothing and using sunscreen that is broad-spectrum, SPF 30 or higher and water-resistant.

D. Apply sunscreen every day to all skin that is not covered by clothing.

E. Apply self-tanner rather than get a tan.

F. Every time the skin is tanned it is prematurely ageing the skin.

G. This holds true if tanning by the sun, a tanning bed, or other indoor tanning equipment.

H. All emit harmful UV rays that accelerate how quickly skin ages.

Question. 22. Is there more we are able to explore particularly in relation to. Age, Sun, Cold, Moisture and Social

Answer 22. Here are a few although perhaps appearing to be a repeat of earlier comments may have different implications.

Item 1. We can easily accelerate our Ageing process by basking in the sun’s rays

Response. Should one not ask. "What was going on in the Persons Mind whilst Sun Bathing." And evaluate this against premature Ageing. 

Item 2. Sun damage is the number one cause of wrinkles and skin that has been permanently damaged

Response. Should this not be back up with some form of Scientific Explanation. Otherwise it is surely no more than a meaningless statement by Persons unknown.

Item 3. Age spots and other forms of discoloration can be seriously exacerbated by the sun’s harmful UV rays

Response. Would not Pure Scientific Inquiry be better satisfied if an understanding was made as to the cause of the so called Age Spots and Other forms of Skin Discoloration before any Scientific Blaming of the Suns harmful UV Rays being labeled as the cause or exacerbation of skin wrinkles. 

Item 4. A face that has spent years working on its tan appears heavily wrinkled and touch like show leather

Response. One may be minded to suggest this is a bit like a Person having a dog that barks all the time - it stops them thinking about the things they do not want to think about if they did not have a dog that barks all of the time.  Hence Sun Bathing to this degree is a distraction not a past time.

Item 5. Once the twenty minute mark of sun exposure is passed in the sun, the benefits from absorbing necessary Vitamin D are counteracted by the damage of the UV rays to the skin

Response...

A. As every Person in the world has a Scientifically Proven different Genetic Makeup - it would seem reasonable to consider - every Persons Body Chemistry would not only be unique as would their daily requirements for Vitamin D.

B. Still recognised as not being created from food intake or made by the body.

C. With no attempt to ask - of all the chemicals in a body if Vitamin D is not one of them. Is it possible under normal conditions the Body does not require Vitamin D - only showing a deficiency in illness to satisfy Doctors desperate to have some answers as to why a Person is ill and how they are going try to cure them.   

Item 6. Spending a life time in cold environments can have a similar effect.

Response...

A. Rather than creating a tougher skin, the skin appears too thin and wrinkles develop.

B. The same effect can be seen in People who use harsh Acne treatments over a period of years.

C. When Acne treatments dry out the skin, it can cause damage similar to the damage caused by cold and sun - creating a dry, tough, wrinkled face.

D. When the skin’s natural oils are depleted, the skin loses its elasticity and the face ages.

E. Moisturizing daily, sometimes two and three times per day and protecting the skin for the sun and damaging cold can combat these rather common effects on our Ageing process

F. All one can say to this is. "Bless them for they know not what they mean by what they say."

Item 7. Stopping Smoking as it greatly speeds up how quickly skin ages. It causes wrinkles and a dull, sallow complexion

Response. This may well be the truth - if we accept this should we not then ask "What happens if and when a Person gives up Smoking to their general health.

Item 8.  Aging and Diet are amongst the most commonly misunderstood Ageing factors and the effect that food has on the body

Response... 

A. There are foods that one can eat that will help retain a younger body and foods that will help to age faster.

B. Choosing a diet that is high in fats, sugars, processed foods and low in fresh fruits and vegetables creates an internal environment that is anything but youth friendly.

C. Foods that cause inflammation, like refined sugar, white flour and even excessive dairy products, can readily create inflammation in the body that contributes to the Ageing process.

D. These foods tend to make the body “heavier,” in feel and appearance - because the internal organs are actually suffering from inflammation.

E. Aside from this, a Human body does not process foods that are not in their natural form very well, which means the organic breakdown of nutrients is not being put to biological good use.

F. Replacing a sugary diet with fried and fatty foods, even if are not overweight, with one that is high in natural products can keep the whole body looking tighter and younger

G.  When one takes into consideration - never once has a diet been shown to bring long-term benefits; often leaving a Person with more weight than they started with and often requiring either Bariatric Surgery or following the real failure of this procedure. Excess skin removal by surgery and a scar destroyed body; not withstanding the further damage to the Persons Mind.

H. Should we not ask what really is the stored - so called FAT.

I. And by what process do we really store it and is this the reason why diets are better said. Destroyers of Life.

J. And is it not fair to say Blood problems are still perhaps with Inflammation the Number 1 mystery to all of Medical Science.

K. Are there really foods that can help maintain a Youthful Body or make us age faster.

L. Is it really foods that cause inflammation.

M. Are foods really able to make a Body feel heavier. 

Item 9. Aging and Weight. Where Being too thin or too heavy can add to the Ageing process.

Response...

A. Being underweight reduces the natural fats in the facial structure which allows the skin to sag and adds to the appearance of wrinkles.

B. A face lift or Botox does not help an underweight face look younger because the natural fattiness that fills out the face cannot be replaced with medical procedures like these.

C. Simply adding five pounds to an underweight body can bring back a softer, wrinkle free face.

D. Too much weight can make us look older by creating poor muscle tone.

E. Overweight People, especially as they age, tend to be less active and this leads to chronic health problems and the cycle of Ageing continues.

F. Even in the forties, fifties, sixties and sometimes beyond, putting on a few extra pounds does not mean having to carry around a spare tyre.

G. Rather, targeted exercise can keep the entire body in shape while adding muscle reduces the flabby, wrinkly look that too much fat can produce.

H. People who have suffered from eating disorders also tend to develop wrinkles, dry skin and skeleton like features as they reach their thirties and forties.

I. The body has spent an extended period of time malnourished, even if it was fifteen or twenty years before.

J. The effects of this phenomenon can be combated through a diet rich in antioxidants, fresh, natural foods and ample muscle building exercise that does not result in excessive weight loss.

K. Sincethe metabolism was effected during the time of the eating disorder, those who have recovered should periodically see a nutritionist to develop high energy, low fat, age fighting dietary plans.

Item 10. Aging and Choices. We all make daily choices that either help or hinder the Ageing process

Response...

1. Regular work outs can help prevent premature Ageing and keep the entire body in great shape.

2. Choosing television in the evening over physical exertion can lead to premature Ageing.

3. The chronic use of harsh chemicals on and around the body can add to Ageing, not to mention disease.

4. Everything from finger nail polish to natural products that make you feel good - aka high and the medications that we pump into our body can have Age related side effects.

5. The closer we can get back to the natural form our bodies crave, the less likely we are to see our body’s Age right in front of our eyes.

6. Making choices that work with our body rather against it can help slow down the Ageing process.

7. Learning to listen to the body can change everything.

8. Stop eating when full.

9. Rest when tired.

10. Focus in a way that life has disallowed before.

11. Turn toward natural interventions when possible instead of chemical alterations for turning back the clock.

12. These are simple choices that work with a bodies’ own natural rhythm and pays back in dividends beyond belief.

13. Avoid repetitive facial expressions.

14. When you make a facial expression, you contract the underlying muscles.

15. If you repeatedly contract the same muscles for many years, these lines become permanent.

16. Wearing sunglasses can help reduce lines caused by squinting.

17. Eat a healthy, well-balanced diet.

18. Findings from a few studies suggest that eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables may help prevent damage that leads to premature skin Ageing.

19. Findings from research studies also suggest that a diet containing lots of sugar or other refined carbohydrates can accelerate Ageing.

20. Drink less alcohol. Alcohol is rough on the skin. It dehydrates the skin and in time, damages the skin making a body look older.

21. Exercise most days of the week.

22. Findings from a few studies suggest that moderate exercise can improve circulation and boost the immune system.

23. This, in turn, may give the skin a more-youthful appearance.

24. Cleanse the skin gently.

25. Scrubbing the skin clean can irritate.

26. Irritating the skin accelerates skin Ageing.

27. Gentle washing helps to remove pollution, makeup and other substances without irritating the skin.

28. Wash the face twice a day and after sweating heavily.

29. Perspiration, especially when wearing a hat or helmet, irritates the skin, so wash the skin as soon as possible after sweating.

30. Apply a facial moisturizer every day.

31. Moisturizer traps water in our skin, giving it a more youthful appearance.

32. Stop using skin care products that sting or burn.

33. When your skin burns or stings, it means your skin is irritated.

34. Irritating your skin can make it look older.

35. Note: Some anti-Ageing products prescribed by a dermatologist may burn or sting.

36. When using a prescription anti-Ageing product, this can be okay. Just be sure to let your dermatologist know.

37. Never too late to benefit.

Item 11. Aging and Stress.

A. Chronic, high stress lives are a good recipe for Ageing.

B. Aside from the effects that a worried face has on facial wrinkles, stress affects everything from the way we carry ourselves to our energy level.

C. People who are consumed with daily stress do not walk tall and proud like People who are feeling good about themselves.

D. They move slower and they challenge their bodies less.

E. People who are overwhelmed with stressed also tend to have illnesses that can help the Ageing process along.

F. A certain amount of stress is actually good for us, although stress that creates physical signs on the body should be handled in a pleasant and relaxing manner.

G. Grab a weekly massage and practice calm forms of exercise like Yoga.

H. Meditation can also help improve your overall stress level, which can make you feel more focused and younger.

I. While we cannot keep those birthdays from rolling around in our direction, we can take affirmative action to keep the Ageing process from taking over our lives.

J. With less stress, better diet and exercise and a happier outlook, we can retain our youthful joy and keep our spirits much younger.

K. The youthful joy on the inside will be noticeable on the outside.

L. Even People who already have signs of premature skin aging can benefit from making lifestyle changes.

M. By protecting the skin from the sun, thereby give it a chance to repair some of the damage.

N. Smokers who stop often notice that their skin looks healthier. 

O. If signs of Ageing skin is bothersome seeing a dermatologist. who may offer New treatments and less-invasive procedures for smoothing wrinkles, tightening skin and improving one’s complexion are giving many People younger-looking skin.

Question. 1. Surely all of these if a Person is able to keep up with what appears to be such a demanding program - must make for the slowing of the process of Ageing a possibility

Answer. 1.  Have made a serious critique of the requirement to separate the Process of Ageing and Ageing with ill health - It would be the correct thing to - confirm there is a serious wealth of information here from the world of Medical Science and other contributors for a Person to improve their fundamental right to age gracefully.

Question. 2. Is it fair to consider if this truly was a Thesis and Dissertation for a PhD, Masters Degree, Professorship or Research Fellow - to ensure full and satisfactory Scientific Inquiry, the process that all Medical Sciense works with. One must ask. "What is Missing." And "How can we address this?"

Answer. 2...

A.  Not only is your point fair - it is essential; for although this Paper is free for anyone to use as they desire, it has not been written with the desire of any of the accolades you mention

B. It has however been to answer; questions with no answers and answers with no questions for improving the process that at the moment we call. "a Life," where the reality is it is becoming more miserable with more and more and almost as every day goes by. People becoming ill and no one seems to notice.

Question. 3. What is the missing link in the understanding of this process

Answer. 3. It has two sections.

1. One is obliged to suggest the Process of Ageing can be summed up as: A Child is conceived spends Nine months gestation in confinement of the Mothers Womb, is born and from the moment of conception until they die for what ever reason - continue to Progressively Age. As this is set against time. Nothing can or ever will or should have the opportunity of interfering with this process

2. The inappropriate Process of Ageing - yes I hear you say this has been included in the above, however to satisfy full Scientific Inquiry and make it worthy of being accepted in the confused world we live in. It must be separated from the Process of Ageing - for surely in the Process of illness set against Ageing; which should be a Natural Process, is the only item of importance...   

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Section. 28.

Question. 1.  It is fair to say - there is no one size fits all when it comes to the Process of Ageing Inappropriately

Answer. 1. Yes that is so - based on the secure Scientific Knowledge; every one of the Seven Billion People on planet Earth have a unique Genetic Structure, thus; if the instructions from the Mind are such to create any form of illness - it must follow the process of Ageing Inappropriately must also be Unique.

Question. 2. So where are we to start

Answer. 2. In order to begin this process it is helpful to recognise. Life Style activity does not cause Inappropriate Ageing.

Question. 3. Please explain that statement before anyone desires to shoot it down

Answer. 3...

A. Of course. For this part we are going to start from Birth.

B. At this time we are from a Life Style point of view quite unrewarded and eager to gather as much information in order for us to fit into life.

C. Thus we are able to as Medical Sciense tells us we as a Child accumulate information at a faster rate than if we were an adult.

D. The acquisition of this information and how we perceive - we will or should react becomes the seedbed for what later will be called our Life Style Activity's.

E. In other words our constantly evolving Lifestyle is never per chance - no more as Charles Darwin would have us believe. Survival of the Fittest

Question. 4. Item A suggests - although we are going to start from Birth; there is more to the story

Answer. 4...

A.   May we first explore the Emotional side of this mysterious phenomenon...

B. If we are able to accept our lifetime of traditional and family values started perhaps many Generations before conception of any Child - and in simple terms; from both sides of the Family, in a Childs formative years it is guided wittingly or unwittingly into a life style that may or may not be to its liking.

C. For we are all Children of Parents or in the main Parents of Children. Even if an individual decides or even biologically is unable to conceive a Child. This process still applies...  

"I will not let my Children grow up to suffer in the same manner as I."

D. As the generations procreated - this belief system was adjusted to and fro and their Children either accepting or not the now Traditional Values and accordingly adjusted their life and thinking patterns.

E. On the face of it this is nothing to do with any illness - let alone Inappropriate or Premature Ageing.

F. However as the Child of any given set of Parents deemed they should react - the entire body chemistry of that Child was irrevocably altered, many times to positive or negative effect.

G. However; always this is the case when illness prevails; no matter how old a Person when illness presents. May we now call this Premature or Inappropriate Ageing.

H. We must stop a moment to consider - A Child can only be conceived under just Two circumstances.

1. Full love and desire to support their Child all of their Life with absolute respect.

2. Rape in some form or another - if a Child is born ill or deformed it will come under this heading.

I. As the Generations evolved Parents with their own belief was the same as their predecessors; but turned upside down a time or two.

J. Let us for this discussion accept it was by Rape of some form or another this unfortunate Person was conceived. Then we cannot be wrong.

K. It is the Parents Body Chemistry which is already both toxic and caustic prior to the Child's conception is the concern.

L. Once conceived the Father biologically no longer has any influence during the Childs time in the womb - only emotionally involved.

M. From this moment on and for all of the Child's life - even if the Parents are as described in Red Item C above, as the Child became ill, then this was only the Emotional Phenotype - not their true now forgotten intentions or instructions.

N. The Mother during confinement - although absolutely desiring the very best for her Child still produces ALL of the necessary nutrients for her Child to grow within her womb.

O. Not realising the negative impact her thoughts from her own history were having on her Child via her body chemistry as well as internal and external emotive activity.

P. We have to consider - still in the year 2017 Medical Science is only just starting giving credence to the Minds activity in illness; thus, will not or does not accept at least from conception a Child is a thinking Human Being.

Q. If not accepted - this is always at the expense of the Child in the womb - its Health and Happiness in Life.

R. For the Child in the womb - it is a different matter as it has a number of things to deal with:

1. Mothers Body Chemistry - growth nutrients, yet both Toxic and Caustic and sometimes Acidic.

2. The Amniotic Fluid surrounding it - in constant flux from Mothers body Chemistry and the Childs waste.

S. No tests would securely demonstrate this - as the Chemistry would be perfectly balanced on instructions from the Mothers Mind.

1. The Childs own Body Chemistry as Automatically interpreted by the Child and adjusted accordingly.

T. Again no test would securely demonstrate this - as again it is perfectly balanced as per the Minds instructions.

U. Mothers constantly changing emotive feelings reflected - if only in her ever changing or fluctuating Heart Beat - to which the Child must constantly adjust too.

V. Not only from a Biological but also a Mind/Emotional point of view - all build up a memory bank that will forever be a driving force - mostly not for the ultimate good of the Child.

W. This activity is achieved through the Emotional Phenotype and the many ever-changing symptoms a mystery to everyone to which any Chemical intervention - will only create more mysterious symptoms.

X. From Birth the Child will grow always having; a "Knowing," but not being able to resolve the Knowing with secure understandings - as there will be no self-recoverable memory.

Y. This now becomes the insecure foundation a Child has to live their life on and with no option but to attempt to gather from someone who can demonstrate; they "Understand" and is able to guide through a secure education to well Health of Mind and Body.

X.  This can be many generations prior to the conception of a Child waiting to be born.

1. The Patriarchal and Matriarchal line of any given family Line as far back as one would wish to go - there is no definitive answer to this.

2. Where singularly or collectively one Parent or Both would have set up a chain of command sent along the Family line via the Emotional Activity as well as the DNA Genetic message relating to Family Behaviours and or Traditions and the many forms of  Psychotic activity. 

3. From the somewhat barked orders of a well meaning Parent it is now helpful to consider Genetics and Illness as a cascade...

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Section. 29.

...where in reality illness is the future Evolutionary change that is long accepted to be; Genetic Mutations.

A. From the very first time - a Child; as in our discussion many generations earlier, was placed in Fear the entire Body chemistry was altered in keeping with the thoughts embedded in the Mind. "I will not let my Children grow up to suffer in the same manner as I."

B. Now change this to a Psychotic Controlling activity on behalf of a grown up Child - Adult Parent, thus the Child of this seemingly life style activity is now controlled by Fear.

C. My long held values confirm. In my 34 plus years of specialising in treating People with multiple symptoms - too many for a Doctor to treat as they are constantly changing. Never once have I ever read a scientifically proven paper that either in the Abstract or the Introduction does not self destroy.

D. Thus I have to accept - nothing of value is known about any illness let alone Mental Illness.

E. Surely this is proven by the one of many name changes often applied to an illness - perhaps in order to obtain a PhD or more research funding:  Manic Depression to Bi Polar.

F. Our construction Genes are a use once process. Our life activity genes are a working copy in constant flux by our Minds activity - be that positive or negative; as the process of Ageing clearly demonstrates, if only by that fact from conception we are constantly either becoming bigger, until the genetic Size is reached then by body replication. Ageing.

G. Thus no illness is genetic unless the science categorically proves it by Knowing the true cause of just one illness. Which it does not.

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Section. 30.

Question. 1. May we now explore the Mind cause and how the entire Biology of a Person is affected into the process of Premature or Inappropriate Ageing before the Person reaches an age related to the Emotional Phenotype (Thoughts-Time-Looks-Age) of the Person.

Answer...

A.  First we must recall we started this paper on the bases of a PhD Thesis and Dissertation - which of course this cannot be as I have no Mentor or Institutional Body to submit to and no qualifications to back it up.

B. As we have worked to demonstrate - a PhD paper  is a collective of all the available research on a given subject written by the student in their own words.

C. Thus, if there is anything missing in the; Thesis, dissertation or even Noble Prize Award Papers; it remains missing, therefore the aged research is included in this PhD submission paper as well as the New Science missing pieces.

D. Recognising of course there may still be items that with later and better knowledge would be required.

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Section. 31.

May we now explore the real and final missing pieces in the historical research:-

One can and perhaps one should go back hundreds of generations and with the use of one word explain everything Mankind does for good bad or indifferent even evolutionary change...

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Fear 1.   

In simple terms there are two types of Fear:

Item 1.  Natural Fear. A necessity for with its partner Anxiety is the driver of the evolution we call life changes, as well as being. - a Terminated from constant use; to stay resident. Thus dormant - awaiting instructions from the Mind in order to protect

A...

1. Anxiety from Natural Fear is also a lifetime necessity for without it we could never achieve anything at all or be super creative - thus, although Extreme Excitement could be considered Anxiety; as it is Natural - we should not be constantly aware of Anxiety feelings or Emotions.

2. As once used or job done would terminate yet stay resident and on natural readiness alert

Item 2.  Installed Fear. Fear that is brought from Dormant to be on constant alert as a Trauma has been detected. Anxiety is a sign of being on constant alert.

A...

1. Anxiety from Unnatural or installed Fear - becomes - through Traumatic events; a lifetime necessity, for without it. No one would ever know we have been traumatised.

2. Thus we could never achieve anything at all or be creative, although Excitement could be considered Anxiety - as it is now Unnatural we become constantly and or permanently aware of Anxiety feelings or Emotions at different levels or changing symptoms when at the worst on a second by second bases.

3. Thus. Fear = Anxiety = illness or inappropriate Ageing.'

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Fear 2.   

Item 1. This is the foundation for all inappropriate Ageing there are no exceptions. Fear! is natural as a protection and unnatural Fear as a protection - due to trauma.

Item 2. Like all illness from emotional trauma there is a gestation and/or progression period; Fear - causes Anxiety - causes - Inadequacy - causes - Jealousy - causes - Bitterness - causes - Resentment - causes - Hatred.

Item 3. Is it really a simple as this - No of course not.

Item 4. Our response to a Fearsome event is as unique to us as our fingerprint, therefore we can, if the circumstances prevail - follow this course or we can without a so called conscious decision, adopt any or none of these process outcomes.

Item 5. Example: A Person; who cannot or does not even know they are being angry or feeling hatred are but two examples of this process.

Item 6. Yet to onlookers it is obvious.

Item 7. Afraid is only as symptom created by Fear causing Anxiety which has to be relieved.

Item 8. Example: It was not so much she/he gradually ceased to be afraid, more unknowing to him/her they insidiously changed the uncomfortable protection of being afraid - to the sickly, or more comfortable - Asthma.

Item 9. And then on from there again as a protection to great heights, strengths and/or creative abilities where everyone was afraid or in awe of him/her.

Item 10. Fear is sadly is behind all ill health conditions, yet this Fear is learnt by association.

Item 11. One could say this is merely an opinion and we have something called choice, we can choose to overcome, just like we can choose to succumb.

Item 12. Yes we have Fundamental Human rights and those rights are ours to be asserted.

Item 13. When we imagine as a result of traumas the world owes us something - we give up our power and Fundamental Rights. In favour of the desire our Self-empowerment overcomes Fear!

Item 14. Or so we are led to believe.

Item 15. It is only when we are Traumatised we give away our Power to others following a trauma response - that they can take our power.

Item 16. Life provides an ample source of strength for us to walk our life.

Or does it.

Item 17. There are countless inspirational People from whom we can take example who have picked themselves up and got with life, by applying. "Feel the fear and do it anyway."

Item 18. Many of them sadly are no longer with us as they could only project the image of wellbeing for so long: Robin Williams, Elvis Presley, Whitney Houston, Ami Winehouse - the list of famous celebrities and how they escaped from their Fear is endless - but only while they were able.

Item 19. If one considers the miracle that is birth, then yes we are born with love/respect and if we acknowledge and assimilate its source, we complete our being and love/respect is what our lives should thrive upon.

Item 20. Anything outside of that is often explained as a; “repeating lesson we have to learn from."

Item 21. But is Love anything more or less than a Fundamental Right an emotion we should use automatically and is UNBREAKABLE.

Item 22. Yet - if we look at it as an entity is no more than a relief of Anxiety - founded by Fear.

Item 23. Demonstrated by broken relationships.

Item 24. Where the couple were unable to relieve their Anxiety on the other any longer.

Item 25. There are two types of Fear to my understanding.

A. The early Warning system inherent in all beings.

B. The abused, addictive, distorted pressing on off of Panic that our civilization fosters through mishandling of events, deliberate Manipulation of Emotions for personal entertainment or control - almost always started at home by well-meaning Parents.

Item 26. Emotions can be exercised through the opposite reaction and that many brave acts are committed by Fearful People who are suddenly released from their entrapment of Fear.

A. Example: A Mother seeing her Child trapped under a great weight - summons the mental strength outside of her physical strength, to lift the object.

Item 27. Question: “Can it be true there is a difference between Danger and Fear.”

Item 28. Answer: Of course there is a difference between Danger and Fear:

A. Danger is a situation we are placed or place ourselves in.

B. Fear is a natural Emotional Tool we use to navigate ourselves out of the Danger.

C. Which is not the same as constantly being in Fear as a result of emotional traumas - this type of Fear never goes away, although it may appear to and most/many times does change over time its presentation. Our Emotional Phenotype, the Person we show to the world.

Item 29. Usually to strange - not considered natural or Normal Emotional activity and or mysterious illness symptoms which are always treatment resistant.

Item 30. Question: Does this now imposed Fear ever go away?

Item 31. Answer: While it will always be part of the Mental/Emotional phenotype, it can appear to be resolved through - conscious intention.

Item 32. Question. Fear can be difficult but not impossible to heal?

Item 33. Answer.

A. Because; it is usually not recognised, thus not healed it has an unquantifiable impact on the physical Body and Society in terms of dis-ease & distress.

B. However if we recognise Fear at all or at the very least as a Symptoms and not a cause - then yes it can be healed.

Item 34. In addition - We recognise Charity begins at Home - but will not recognise - ALL illness begins at home.

Item 35. Global tensions are so overwhelming for most People that the stress compounds with existing Anxiety into a culture of Fear & apprehension fuelled often by Politics, the Medical Profession and pharmaceutical companies - selling products with Fear evoking, science and adverts.

Item 36. Thus Fear created by emotional traumas, not only - never goes away, especially with any form of medications, this only makes the fear worse - nor should it, as it has now become the very and only foundation we stand on - albeit not very securely.

Item 37. I do somewhat stand myself and Talking Cures apart from this as not only can Fear be repaired but more importantly it must become the only foundation we have ever had - but now stand on securely, for the original and very damaging Fear created the very Person's we are - including all of our life skills.

Item 38. Presented as our evolving, “Emotional Phenotype.”

Item 39. Repaired Fear allows us to not only become the Person we should have been but able to utilize ALL of the skills the original Fear gave us - with comfort.

Item 40. Fear is just Fear a natural right not a Gift.

Item 41. Or Fear where our Rights have been removed and illness takes its place.

Item 42. Question. How des all of this relate to the process of Inappropriate Ageing? 

Item 43. Answer...

A. It is so important first we update our view of illness and it’s so called - mysterious cause.

B. May we now explore the pathway Fear takes with Biological Presentations in order to achieve this we must first surely realise illness causing Fear is not real Fear - it is a product of our negative thoughts we create as a result of emotional traumas - under these circumstances Fear is real danger causing illness - thus is not a choice caused by Incident/Accident Fear.

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Fear 3. 

Natural Fear.

Item 1. Fear is a natural and healthy response to threat in order to protect ourselves. Not a Gift for being a good Boy or Girl... embrace it, know it, use it as a strength... do not attempt to "ignore" it! Will self-repair - leaving no long-term effects.

Unnatural Fear.

Item 2. Incident Fear lowers the Body Temperature - we go cold, shiver where the Hairs on our Body stand erect. Will not always self-repair - leaving long-term effects.

A. This type of Fear causes Anxiety - a natural short term response - in order to warm the Body up lowered as a result of the Fear in order to protect us to flight or fight.

Traumatic Fear.

Item 3. When traumatized - the resulting Fear and Anxiety becomes the foundation ALL illness stands on; thus - is a weapon of Self-Destruction.

Item 4. Fear evoked by Emotional and or Physical Traumas based on it perceptive value irrevocably and permanently alters - yet is always maintains perfectly balanced, the entire Body Chemistry.

Item 5. At the same time places a constriction on every cell, Muscle, Vein and Arteries in the entire Body.

Item 6. Traumatic Fear lowers the Body Temperature - which goes cold and/or shivers where the Hairs on our Body stand erect.

A. If this Fear remains it ONLY has long-term and unchangeable effects on both Mind and Body.

Item 7. Anxiety as a result of Fear being evoked is a SHORT-TERM measure to warm the Body, take flight or fight in order for ultimate protection.

Item 8. If the Fearsome experience is not resolved in order for the Anxiety to stop the Hypothalamus is altered to a new higher temperature rating.

Item 9. The Fear and Anxiety as well as all of the other activity alter the entire Body Chemistry, making it somewhat toxic and or caustic - acidic.

Item 10...

A. Anxiety being a short term Body activity - most painful physically and emotionally if permanently running.

B. Insidiously gives over control to other organs of the Body in order to maintain the core and Body temperature. Heart, Liver, Pancreas. The reality is - no organ is exempt.

Item 11...

A. If the Fear remains unresolved the Mind responds by permanently altering the Hypothalamus - body thermostat.

B. Like turning up the Heating or Air Conditioning - both at the same time.

C. Both require more Fuel to drive the temperature Up or Down.

D. Under these circumstances an affected Person can be and often is - both Hot and Cold at the same time and cannot resolve either comfortably.

Item 12. The core temperature of the Body is now in conflict, the internal organs demand more Fuel the skin is now sacrificed in order to protect the internal organs the waste disposal systems go into overdrive and either over produce - Urine-Sweating or under produce - Constipation.

A. Under these circumstances Management of Fear will NEVER return the nutrients to the Skin.

Item 13. Which in turn causes other heat creating organs. E.G. heart, liver, Pancreas of the Body to further increase chemical-secretions/activity in order to maintain the Body heat.

A. At this time the exterior of the Body may well feel cold or hot. it is the internal core temperature - unrecognizable by measurement, which has to be maintained.

Item 14. Constriction activity of the entire Body makes delivery of nutrients from food to the Mind/and Body - difficult to impossible.

A. This depletes the Body not only of the very fuel required to run the Body - Oxygen, but more important the cell space in the respiring tissues to store Oxygen and at the same time not only increase the carbon dioxide waste but denies the Body the ability to transport this waste for disposal.

B. Resulting in the Body being both Toxic and Caustic and often Acidic.

Item 15...

A. Of course one may argue this is too simple and of course they would be correct for the process from Fear affects every one of our Body chemicals (circa 2000 plus) in a Pyramid Style.

B. One affects two, two affect four, four affect eight and in just forty eight steps there has been enough chemical cell activity to build another Body - trillions of chemical adaptations - all from Fear.

Item 16. Thus our emotions are implicated in illness but only if in the case of illness they are seen as Symptoms and never the Cause.

Item 17...

A. Fear being at the heart of every illness known to mankind and the reason why there is not one cure for any of the approximately 100,000 illness in the world and Modern Medicine does not have a clue as to the true cause of one of them and more importantly does not have a single disease modifying treatment.

B. Thus all illnesses are mysteries - no exceptions.

Item 18...

A. It is not me now or ever being Vexatious it is information as supplied and well published on a worldwide bases by the Medical Profession themselves.

B. It is just because no one has the courage to say it we have to continue to accept the failures as scientifically proven.

Question 1. So we have explored and explained the process of Ageing and demonstrated The Process of premature Ageing is a different process - how can this be demonstrated is correct. And they are as you suggest - two completely different processes.

Answer. 1.  Simple, yet there are two answers to this.

 1.  Ageing itself - is a time set process; no matter how old a Person becomes, that is still the process of Ageing.

2...

A.  Inappropriate Premature Ageing is perhaps best seen as the process of illness creation or even a safer way of being seriously ill. 

B. Let us now explore this process in regards to the results - mostly we can only see in a mirror or others who constantly remind us with their words or the way they look at us and say...

...My word you do look old.

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The Biological Process of Inappropriate Premature Ageing. 

Conclusion.  

1. From conception the body chemistry delivered by Mother via the umbilical cord to the Child is both Toxic and Caustic and possibly Acidic.

2. This acts as an exciter to the Mind and in turn the body - where every cell is implicated.

3. This process - from the Fear or Traumatic events and or the birth process that lowered the body temperature.

4. The body responds by utilising other internal organs to raise and maintain the temperature in order to normalize the cooled - by Fear; core temperature.

5. The resulting Anxiety has to be relieved and is a lifetime process.

6. The resulting chemistry secretions from Anxiety make the Heart race and is now under duress.

7. Once racing - the Heart has an inability to satisfactorily rest between beats to allow the turmoil of the Blood to normalize before the next Heart Beat.

8. Whilst the possibility exists for the Heart to deliver the full quantity of deoxygenated blood to the Lungs for Re oxygenating. The Lungs are working under duress,  demonstrating ultimately by the  Lungs inability to supply the correct quantity and quality Oxygenated Blood. This is the same process that causes Inflammation throughout the body

9. Placing the Heart under greater duress and as its timing is now affected is unable to deliver the correct quantity of blood to the lungs.

10. These two processes cause the Heart and Lungs to overheat - thus requiring cooling.

11. The Fear and all other process mentioned - alter the way the body extracts all life's necessary nutrients from the Diet; causing some form of Bowel movement concerns.

12. This is recognised by the Mind as requiring assistance - fluids known as water are sent to the intestines.

13. This in turn causes the Body - as Fear lowers the core temperature; to use the bowel contents as a internal radiator.

14. This causes a retention and extraction of water in areas that require cooling or areas that can not afford the water loss - yet in turn places the affected organs under a greater duress - creating more heat and cold at the same time. The intestines and Bowels being prime examples.

15. This process is often aggravated by the use of medications to remove the perceived excess of water surrounding the internal organs - namely the Heart.

16. The prescribed medications: Diuretics or any medication with similar designed effects - causes an exacerbation of this process; for although the Body may well excrete masses of water, the intrinsic requirement does not change.

17. This water - that no amount of consumption of water or other hydrating substances consumed, can ever be replaced; thus, it has to come from somewhere as the heat in the Heart and Lungs as well as every cell in the body is still there and requires cooling - or in medical science terms the Body insists on Homeostasis. A balance of all body processes.

18. This biological demand for water meaning every body chemical - forces the Skin; the largest organ of the Body to become a sacrificial organ as it is deemed by the Mind of no importance when compered with the process of life - the internal organs provide.

19. If the originating Fear is still resident this process cannot be altered.

20. Soon - usually increased with later illness and further medications the distribution of water and body chemistry is no longer able to sustain the cooling required thus more fluid is required.

21. This is drawn from the Muscles of the body or anywhere the Mind feels can be sacrificed in order to sustain life - until the originating fear is resolved allowing the body chemistry to return to Natural or even Normal.

22. The result of this process - and there is no real order of play here; is the skin starts to shrivel, dry and harden and the muscles lose their tonus as they shrink - both due to the loss or now inappropriate use of the entire body liquids.

23. Causing a Loss in Body, height, weak muscles and of course - wrinkled dry leather like skin or even thin skin.

24. Our face is our window to the world that tells what is going on in our Mind.

25. We have other window like opportunities with our Hands, Arms and many times the Sagging Neck and Head - as the Neck appears not to have the strength to keep the Head up, because of the Toxic, Caustic and perhaps Acidic nature of the body chemicals, that destroys on instructions from a Traumatised  Mind the tonus of the Skin and Muscles of the Body...

26. Therefor this process is collectively known as... 

The Biological Process of Inappropriate Premature Ageing. 

A process of the Mind - No amount of creams, lotions or potions will alter.         

This is my truth Now tell us yours, change someone’s Mind.

Kindest regards and best wishes,

Peter Smith Talking Cures.                      

The truth hurts and so it should - lies and mistruths never ever show the true damage they cause.

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No apologies are made if this paper is seen as simplistic, for too long Scientific Medical Papers have been written in a manner no one truly understands, if this were not so, cures would have long since been found making this paper and Talking Cures unnecessary or redundant.

Whilst it must be recognised, the framework - part of the content, for this paper is in the public domain and credit given to the authors;

Peter Smith Talking Cures asserts the right to be recognised as author and Intellectual

©Copyright holder of his contribution to this document...

"Ageing and Premature Ageing Process. Explored Explained Understood."

Author Peter Smith Talking Cures Copyright 18th August 2017.

Thus, this document is free to use as an Education or Patient led assistance in its entirety.

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