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Epilepsy Explained Explored Understood.

Body (framework) of Discussion - Courtesy of Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia

Epilepsy (from Ancient Greek: "to seize, possess, or afflict"


If in reading this paper my writing appears to be like a foreign language or even rambling...

Consider reading this paper not as a book - take some time to comprehend the contents - where I would like to think and feel sure it will make sense?

So often, we read or hear in detail. "What" about an illness - but rarely if ever does anyone take the time to truly explain, "Why," this paper is designed to answer many of the questions - we are so often left with.

Where many times with illness we have the questions and no answers - or the answers and not the questions.

If I have unwittingly left anything out or not answered fully, please, email me (at the end of this page) and I will include it in the Paper at the earliest opportunity.

Please include a copy and paste if possible of the item that is not clear.

Did we not all struggle as a Child to learn many things - now, through the experience of life we are extremely competent at.

No apology if offered if discussions are repeated within this paper - the understanding for this, is nothing is more repeating than medical science itself about illness and illness that is there every day of one's life and - despite treatments, does not get better or have a satisfactory scientific explanation/understanding.

The first thing in the process of answering this is, for any one suffering...

- "New understandings are required about illness..." it appears - the existing education is the same worldwide? Non-existent.

From Talking Cures point of view and therapeutic practice - names of illness especially Medically Diagnosed recognised and scientifically proven, are of no real value in the understanding and treatment of any illness - the only Name we should use or symptom we may label is...

"A Person is unable to achieve a Healthy and satisfactory lifestyle.”

Question: What is Epilepsy?

Answer: Epilepsy is recognised by the medical profession as a group of neurological diseases characterized by Epileptic Seizures.

Question: Ok I asked for that? Tells me nicely. "What," have to wonder, if it really, or why did it take - the noble medical profession so long to say just that; moreover, does it really answer my question?

Answer: You are getting too smart. Epileptic Seizures are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable - to long periods of vigorous shaking.

Question: Better, may we start out how we mean to carry on? Have you ever knowingly treated a Person with Epilepsy?

Answer: From the very beginning of my therapeutic career, (July 1983) I specialised in treating People with multiple long-term no known cause and no known cure symptoms of Mind and Body - thus it was never in my therapeutic remit to request of a Person to detail diagnosed symptoms.

Question: Why is that?

Answer: Simply I never accepted yet always considered - when a Person with their Doctor/specialist in possession of all the Scientific knowledge, who with the latest and best Scientifically Proven Treatments was not able to deal with all of the Person's presenting symptoms under the one treatment modality and as a result create a cure or even offer long-term good management; was placed in a position of attending my surgery.

Then it was reasonable to consider - the Medical Profession did not know very much and their knowledge, would not be conducive to a satisfactory outcome.

Question: Does that now allow you to answer my first question?

Answer: Yes just once - way back in early 1984 a Mother brought her Seventeen year old Daughter to me for assistance - and Mother did all the talking - telling me the girl had severe seizures as well as her entire body shook from head to toe.

Question: Are you suggesting there was a message you should have seen - but did not?

Answer: Yes, this is true. Without realising at the time, the activity of the Mother educated me into the now long-term understanding; Parents cause all illness and was the seedbed for my 2015 paper on Munchausen's Syndrome. Munchausens Syndrome

Question: What was the outcome?

Answer: Remembering at the time I used Hypnotherapy (not as a management tool) as a treatment and this was 1983.

In a short space of time the girls seizures were a thing of the past and the body shaking was seriously minimised and I had weaned her of the medication - not in my remit for many years now.

At the time Multiple Sclerosis was rather like a new kid on the block - with the Girls presenting symptoms lessened I became aware of Mother's power over her and for the very first and last time I took a Parent into my confidence and requested. "For a short period of time Not under any circumstances; was she to go to the Doctors." "Why" Mother demanded - of course, I was obligated to answer. "A Doctor at this time would in pursuit of gaining the high ground of knowing something, would want to treat the now diagnosed Multiple Sclerosis.

Quicker than the speed of light Mother whisked her to the Doctors and demanded she be diagnosed with MS - of course Doctor willingly obliged.

There ended the Daughters right to live an improved life.

Some years passed Mother and Father passed away the Girl married, never had another seizure, although was later confined in the main to a wheelchair, yet remained in good spirits.

This was confirmed on a chance meeting some five years ago (2010.)

Question: You talk and even write about these things with what appears to be - consummate ease?

Answer: Yes more so today - always I have been of the professional opinion. "If one cannot be challenged on what professes, then is what one professes worthy of the challenge and more important; if one cannot or will not be challenged, what is one hiding...

...Other than a seriously damaged ego - or is it just a lack of knowledge and therapeutic ability.

Question: Please explain this for me? "In Epilepsy, seizures tend to recur and have no immediate underlying cause while seizures that occur due to a specific cause are not deemed to represent epilepsy." What is it saying or does it mean?

Answer: Nothing - it is Medical Science repeating Nonsense.

Question: Surely, for you to be so Verbally Sharp - there must be more?

Answer: Yes, "no immediate underlying cause," says it all.

As the cause of most cases of Epilepsy is unknown, although some People develop Epilepsy as the result of brain injury, stroke, brain tumour and substance use disorders.

Question: Would the list above be deemed as - underlying cause?

Answer: The definition of underlying refers to something lying beneath or the basic or root cause of something. Or in medical terminology, "sub-clinical," working towards; "we do not know." So; with perhaps the exclusion of Brain Injury (impact) yes they are all symptoms - thus an underlying cause each having their own cause, vested within the Mind and its negative thought processes - memories.

Question: How would you view this what appears to be; confusing science from confused scientists?

Answer: Dormant - yet as active as though diagnosable or recognisable.

Question: What about the cause - would you know what that is?

Answer: Without question - although not the definitive or individual cause.

Question: Why not the definitive cause?

Answer: This is as unique as a Person's fingerprint, although the cause is the same for every illness. No exceptions.

Question: What is the cause for every illness?

Answer: In simple terms - "Fear" as a negative input; not of an acceptable nature to the Child or recipient of the imposed Fear.

Which in turn created Anxiety that altered permanently, the entire Body Chemical and Electrical activity from the Mind to the Brain and on into the Body, which at the same time created a lifetime of inadequacy - unable to cope with life's demands, tiredness unrelieved by sleep or rest and mysterious, no known cause and no known cure symptoms.

Requiring a release and in this case Epilepsy - being the end product result.

Question: Does Genetics play a part in Epileptic Seizures?

Answer: It is of a scientific opinion - Genetic mutations are linked to a small proportion of the disease.

Question: Disease? - is Epilepsy really a Disease?

Answer: Although the Medical Science suggests - Epileptic Seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell activity in the Brain.

Where the diagnosis typically involves ruling out other conditions that might cause similar symptoms - such as fainting.

Additionally, where making the diagnosis involves determining - if any other cause of seizures is present, such as alcohol withdrawal or electrolyte problems.

To ensure this disorder is kept a biological in cause, it has to be labelled as a Disease - if not, it is too close for comfort as a Mind disorder - Rather than the Brain.

Question: What is an Electrolyte Problem?

Answer: There is much said about this Biological activity within the Body and Brain but not so much the Mind.

For the Body to naturally function - the entire Body Chemistry and the resulting Electrical Stimulus for specific muscular activity, has to be in accordance with the desires of the Mind; based on the collective memories - stored within and perfectly balanced at all times and under all prevailing circumstances.

Therefore an Electrolyte Problem or cortical nerve cell activity in the Brain must be part of all life activity and every illness or only within the confines of Medical Science - not knowing the cause of life or illness.

Question: How is Epilepsy diagnosed?

Answer: This may be done by imaging the Brain and performing blood tests.

Epilepsy can often be confirmed with an electroencephalogram (EEG) but a normal test does not rule out the condition.

Question: If Epilepsy is a Disease? Can it be "Cured?"

Answer: Seizures are controllable with medication - in about 70% of cases.

In those whose seizures do not respond to medication, then surgery, neurostimulation or dietary changes may be considered.

Question: So do I have to answer the question myself? With "No, it cannot be medically cured," only managed and then one has to in part - self-manage?

Answer: Sometimes this is the only acceptable way. However - Let us not kid ourselves, that for the first time in history Medical Science has actually created a cure, for a disease.

Question: With this is mind; is there a suggestion this mysterious disorder as to its cause, is of life-long duration?

Answer: Not all cases of Epilepsy are lifelong and some People improve to the point that treatment is no longer required.

Question: Is there at least from yourself - a suggestion as to why this is?

Answer: Whilst we do not have a case history to work from - it would seem reasonable to consider the Mind realised this disorder was not going to gather the understanding sought - so simply created another one.

Question: Is this a demonstration of what you term as - Substitution?

Answer: Certainly is. Even if a medication is not applied - the Mind is clever enough to swop one disorder for another, to gather the necessary understanding.

Question: What is this understanding for?

Answer: All illness is created by the Mind and has one reason for being - to gain understanding and resolution of the Traumas that initially placed a Person (Child) in Fear - that over a period of time resulted in an illness or many illnesses.

Question: Is there Scientific Data that demonstrates the percentage of the population who are affected?

Answer: It is reported - About 1% of People worldwide (65 million) have Epilepsy and nearly 80% of cases occur in developing countries.

That In 2013 resulted in 116,000 deaths up from 111,000 deaths in 1990.

Question: Whilst on the face of it - the rise in number appears to indicate Medical Science is better at managing the disorder? Could there be other reasons?

Answer: Without access to the graph that demonstrates the data - it is difficult but not impossible to think of a response...

...My guess would be the change came from around and post 2002!

Question: And?

Answer: Sometime from around the year 2000 an event changed the way the population of the world viewed itself...

...Yet created more questions than there were answers and answers with no questions.

Question: Does the Scientific Data suggest this disorder is age related?

Answer: There is it appears from certain Medical wisdom - Epilepsy becomes more common as People age and others somewhat contradict with;  "it happens in all ages, races and social classes with Epilepsy most commonly diagnosed in Children and People over Sixty Five. 

Confirmed by; In the developed world, onset of new cases occurs most frequently in infants and the elderly; in the developing world - this is in older children and young adults, due to differences in the frequency of the underlying causes.

About 5–10% of all People will have an unprovoked seizure by the age of 80 and the chance of experiencing a second seizure is between 40 and 50%.

Question: What does the last comment indicate?

Answer: The cause of the first seizure is not known and watchful waiting for the next, so we can prescribe a medication.

Question: Are there any other consequences following having a seizure?

Answer: In many areas of the world those with Epilepsy either have restrictions placed on their ability to drive or are not permitted to drive, but most are able to return to driving after a period of time without seizures.

Question: May we explore the signs and symptoms?

Answer: Yes of course - I hope you have no objection; as I am not familiar with the research - I have had a peek ahead at this Scientific Paper provided by Wikipedia, to see what I am in for.

Question: Of course - is that a procedure you always adopt?

Answer: Working on the understanding - if I do not know the answer then there is something wrong with my thinking and knowledge.

Thus I only work on the last instruction from a Person I am working with, it seems fitting I do the same with any questions posed to me - this way I am not prone to make mistakes or activate a negative response from the Person's Subconscious Mind.

Question: May we return to my question?

Answer: It appears to be or the suggestion is - A bite to the tip of the tongue due to a seizure, is an early recognition sign.

Question: From this early sign? What is the progression and how does Medical Science view this disorder?

Answer: It is said - Epilepsy is characterized by a long-term risk of recurrent seizures.

Seizures may present in several ways depending on the part of the Brain involved and the Person's age.

Question: What does this tell us so far?

Answer: It would seem reasonable to consider from the Scientific Data; although Seizures have been recognised since ancient Greek times - is Still Watchful waiting, to see what emerges that Medical Science can make sense of and how they can ensure this is only of biological creation, appears to be the order of the day.

Question: May we explore Seizures in order to confirm or deny your viewpoint?

Answer: Essential that we do - must not let anything or anyone - NOT EVEN ME, stand in the way of better understanding of this disorder - after all, it is nearly 2016.

It appears:

The most common type (60%) of seizures are convulsive.

Of these, one-third, begin - as generalized seizures from the start, affecting both hemispheres of the Brain.

Two-thirds begin as partial seizures, which affect one hemisphere of the Brain - that may then progress to generalized seizures.

The remaining 40% of seizures are non-convulsive.

An example of this type is the absence seizure, which presents as a decreased level of consciousness and usually lasts about 10 seconds.

Partial seizures are often preceded by certain experiences, known as Auras.

They include sensory, visual, hearing, or smell, psychic, autonomic and motor phenomena.

A Jerking activity may start in a specific muscle group and spread to surrounding muscle groups in which case it is known as a Jacksonian march.

Automatisms may occur, which are non-consciously-generated activities and mostly simple repetitive movements like smacking of the lips or more complex activities such as attempts to pick something up.

There are six main types of generalized seizures: tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, myoclonic, absence and atonic seizures.

They all involve loss of consciousness and typically happen without warning.

Tonic-clonic seizures occur with a contraction of the limbs followed by their extension.

The Tonic Phase - Arching of the back, which lasts 10-30 seconds.

Clonic Phase - A cry may be heard due to contraction of the chest muscles, followed by a shaking of the limbs in unison.

Tonic seizures produce constant contractions of the muscles.

A Person often turns blue as breathing is stopped.

In clonic seizures there is shaking of the limbs in unison.

After the shaking has stopped it may take 10–30 minutes for the Person to return to normal; this period is called the "postictal state" or "postictal phase."

Loss of bowel or bladder control may occur during a seizure.

The tongue may be bitten at either the tip or on the sides during a seizure.

In tonic-clonic seizure, bites to the sides of the inside of the cheeks are more common.

Tongue bites are also relatively common in psychogenic - having a psychological origin or cause rather than a physical one - non-Epileptic seizures.

Myoclonic seizures involve spasms of muscles in either a few areas or all over.

Absence seizures can be subtle with only a slight turn of the head or eye blinking.

The Person does not fall over and returns to normal - immediately it ends.

Atonic seizures involve the loss of muscle activity for greater than one second.

This typically occurs on both sides of the Body.

About 6% of those with Epilepsy have seizures that are often triggered by specific events and are known as reflex seizures.

Those with reflex Epilepsy have seizures that are only triggered by specific stimuli.

Common triggers include flashing lights and sudden noises.

In certain types of Epilepsy, seizures happen more often during sleep and in other types they occur almost only when sleeping.

Question: Why is it Medical Science is able to recognise psychogenic - thus having a psychological origin or cause rather than a physical one? Yet not recognise the Mind is at work here?

Answer: The Mind and its thoughts are not treatable with Medications, thus the only profit to be had is for Psychologists or Psychiatrists not General practitioners or Surgeons.

Question: Comprehensive - but what does all this tell us?

Answer: I have extracted certain points of interest and made them questions and answers:

Question: "Seizures are convulsive?"

Answers: Nice observation - but what does it demonstrate.

Question: "Generalized seizures affecting both hemispheres of the Brain?"

Answer: Ok but WHY.

Question: "Two-thirds begin as partial seizures in one hemisphere of the Brain which may then progress to generalized seizures?"

Answer: But WHY.

Question: "Seizures are non-convulsive?"

Answer: But WHY.

Question: "An example of this type is the absence seizure?"

Answer: Patience is a virtue - the use of the word. "Absence," demonstrates how little Medical Science knows or perhaps better said, desires to know.

Question: "Partial seizures are often preceded by certain experiences, known as Auras?"

Answer: True to form - if Medical Science does not know, a change of name, "Auras" will securely hide the Scientific FACT.

Question: "They include sensory, visual, hearing, smell, psychic, autonomic and motor phenomena?"

Answer: However it is the Brain affected in this process - not the Mind processing information and delivering instructions to the Body via the Brain for daily activities.

Question: "A Jerking activity known as a Jacksonian march?"

Answer: Let us give Epilepsy a really good name - that will make us sound as though we know what we are talking about and are important.

Question: "Automatisms may occur, which are non-consciously-generated activities?"

Answer: So if they are not Consciously generated activities and the conscious is Brain Mapped - where does the instruction for the so-called, "Automatisms" come from.

Question: And mostly simple repetitive movements like smacking of the lips or more complex activities such as attempts to pick something up?"

Answer: When such times as medical science is able to answer this simple question - then it will truly have become Scientific.

Question: "There are six main types of generalized seizures: tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, myoclonic, absence and atonic seizures?"

Answer: These are to relieve the anxiety of the medical profession of not knowing what caused the earlier seizure and never for the Patient at all - or simply for Mindless medics - Creativity as the Brakes on Madness.

For if, they did not create a new name they would go mad or not be paid for their failure.

Question: "They all involve loss of consciousness and typically happen without warning?"

Answer: But what and in near the end of 2016 if anything Medical Profession are you going to do about it - other than watchful waiting.

Question: "Tonic-clonic seizures occur with a contraction of the limbs followed by their extension?

Answer: Nice observation anyone would be able to see - but "WHY!"

Question: "The Tonic Phase Clonic Phase Tonic seizures produce constant contractions of the muscles?"

Answer: But "WHY."

Question: "A Person often turns blue as breathing is stopped?"

Answer: But "WHY." What is the cause.

Question: "In clonic seizures there is shaking of the limbs in unison?"

Answer: But "WHY." What is the cause.

Question: After the shaking has stopped - this period is called the "Postictal state?"

Answer: Really!

Question: What is the "Postical State?"

Answer: Perhaps best seen as a poor excuse for, "we do not know," but we are not letting on.

The Postictal State is the altered state of consciousness after an Epileptic Seizure.

It usually lasts between 5 and 30 minutes, but sometimes longer.

In the case of larger or more severe seizures is characterized by drowsiness, confusion, nausea, hypertension, headache or migraine and other disorienting symptoms.

And is nothing to do with the Mind "IS IT."

Question: What then is the "Postictal Phase?"

Answer: Perhaps best seen as a posh excuse for, "we do not know," but we are not letting on.

Postictal Phase of a seizure...

A seizure has three distinct phases: Aura, Ictus and Postictal State.

The first phase involves alterations in smell, taste, visual perception, hearing and emotional state.

This is known as an aura, which is actually a small partial seizure that is often followed by a larger event.

The seizure is known as ictus.

There are two major types of seizure: partial and generalized.

What happens to the Person during the seizure depends on where in the Brain the disruption of neural activity occurs.

Question: What is a specific stimuli?

Answer: An excuse for we do not know - flashing lights is a good example.

Question: May we please summarise these questions and answers?


the paper they are written on.

Question: Earlier it was said - "A Person often turns blue as breathing is stopped?" Why do you think this is?

Answer: First I must say in general I do not do, "thinking," either I know and say so, or find out if I do not.

There are many ways the Mind is able to demonstrate Fear, perhaps the most significant is in the Chest affecting in the main or as a front line - the Heart and the way it exchanges deoxygenated for oxygenated blood with the Lungs and the Lungs and the ability to excrete waste from the deepest areas of the Lungs, progressively causing the inability to oxygenate blood for delivery to the Heart and the rest of the Body, including the Brain.

Thus the greater degree of Fear the greater restriction the less oxygenated blood leading to either a blue hue of the Body or even blackout and ultimately death.     

Question: Could not have been clearer than that? Can we now explore this situation in some more detail?

Answer: Yes of course - the subject is very large and we must be thankful to those who have given us the framework that enables this exploration and different explanations.

Loss of bowel or bladder control may occur during a seizure.

The tongue may be bitten at either the tip or on the sides during a seizure.

In tonic-clonic seizure, bites to the sides of the inside of the cheeks are more common.

Tongue bites are also relatively common in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures Myoclonic seizures involve spasms of muscles in either - a few areas or all over.

Absence seizures can be subtle with only a slight turn of the head or eye blinking.

The Person does not fall over although Atonic seizures involve the loss of muscle activity.

This typically occurs on both sides of the Body.

Often triggered by specific events and are known as reflex seizures.

Those with reflex Epilepsy have seizures that are only triggered by specific stimuli.

Common triggers include flashing lights and sudden noises.

In certain types of Epilepsy, seizures happen more often during sleep and in other types they occur - almost only when sleeping.

Question: When, "a few areas or all over" are mentioned - what is the meaning behind this and it is possible for a medication to treat this.

Answer: If one does not understand the entire Body Chemistry as one organism, then we have to consider this is no more than an attempt to maintain the upper hand by demonstrating of biological cause or a further admittance of. "We just do not know" and no medication can possible affect every single body cell so affected - before it is switched off - if only but on a temporary bases - by the Mind itself.

Question: Earlier when asked about Specific Stimuli, you replied - may we now explore this a little further?

Answer: When a Person Negatively or constantly reacts to what may be considered and external stimuli it is only the Emotional Phenotype reacting not the Person - therefore it is best we see this as just another symptom of the main causes.

Question: What is the Emotional Phenotype?

Answer: The image we show to ourselves and the world based on our entire store of memories - be they, good, bad. indifferent or memories not in our ability to recall - known as Dormant yet highly active.   

Question: What does this tell us, or is there a deeper meaning behind it all?

Answer: Your use of the word. "What" says it all - as that is all the Medical Profession stands for, always. "What," anyone else could observe, never. "Why," "what" in reality everyone - does not want to hear.

Question: May we return to Postictal?

Answer: It is generally accepted. After the active portion of a seizure, there is typically a period of confusion referred to as the postictal period before a normal level of consciousness returns.

It usually lasts 3 to 15 minutes, but may last for hours.

Other common symptoms include feeling tired, headache, difficulty speaking and abnormal behaviour.

Psychosis after a seizure is relatively common, occurring in 6–10% of People.

Often People do not remember - what happened during this time.

Localized weakness, known as Todd's paralysis may also occur, after a partial seizure.

When it occurs, it typically lasts for a few seconds to many minutes - however; rarely may also last for a day or two.

Question: Explanation please and Why does Psychosis occur following a seizure?

Answer: Because of the Scientific Blindness of not knowing the true cause of illness is a process of the Mind and then attempting to treat the illness by biological means.

There are a number of clues contained in this information.

Which without the Medical Profession realising so - it destroys any belief Epilepsy is of Biological Cause:

Confusion, difficulty speaking and abnormal behaviour, Psychosis, not remembering and Todds Paralyses.

Question: How so?

Answer: Confusion is the only emotion from Conception and Birth during the course of our lives - that is of any real value to us.

With abnormal behaviour and the patronising and dismissive word. "Psychosis," clearly demonstrating not much is known - as does. Not Remembering and Epilepsy are Processes of the Mind, not the Brain.

Todd's Paresis, Todd's Paralysis, or Todd's Palsy or Postictal Paresis/Paralysis, "after seizure;" is focal weakness in a part of the Body after a seizure.

This weakness typically affects appendages and is localized to either the left or right side of the Body.

It usually subsides completely within 48 hours.

Todd's Paresis may also affect speech, eye position, gaze, or vision.

For an illness of any description to be named after a Person clearly demonstrates - the findings were for the Named Person and never ever the sufferer or attending Family members.

Question: Where does Psychosocial fit within the remit of Epilepsy?

Answer: Epilepsy can have adverse effects on social and psychological well-being.

These effects may include: social isolation, stigmatization or disability.

They may result in lower educational achievement and worse employment outcomes.

Learning difficulties are common in those with the condition and especially among Children with Epilepsy.

The stigma of Epilepsy can also affect the Families of those with the disorder.

Certain disorders occur more often in People with Epilepsy, depending partly on the Epilepsy syndrome present.

These include Depression, Anxiety disorders and Migraines.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affects three to five times more Children with Epilepsy than Children in the general population.

ADHD and Epilepsy have significant consequences on a Child's behavioural, learning and social development.

Epilepsy is also more common in Children with Autism.

Bottom line - when Psychosocial is used it always demonstrates significant People caused the disorder and will not own up - so have to find a good excuse to blame something, sort of tangible.

Question: Why does ADHD affect so many more Children than Epilepsy?

Answer: First it is essential we recognise ADHD is a symptom which causes nothing, as is Epilepsy only a symptom.

From the point of Trauma - illness is never by chance where it affects the Body or in Medical Science little minds where they say it is.

Question: Educates and tells me nicely about it but not; "WHY?" Are you becoming one of them; "What," is name?

Answer: Good point and no I am not - for I am able to see; all of this amounts to no more than Medical Blindness, with the lack of desire or inability to see with their Minds. - The Brain is instructed by the Mind to perfectly, Laser Aim and affect the Body in keeping with the style of originating Traumas and how the Mind deemed it would gain the understanding required to resolve the traumas.

In addition - It is all Back to front Medical Thinking worse than; what came first - the Chicken or the Egg.

Almost every line is a clear and unambiguous demonstration - the Mind (Front) is most seriously implicated and not at all the Brain (back.)

Question: Point taken? Make we review the so-called causes?

Answer: Epilepsy can have both Genetic and acquired causes, with interaction of these factors in many cases.

Established acquired causes include serious Brain Trauma, Stroke, Tumours and problems in the Brain as a result of a previous infection.

In about 60% of cases - the cause is unknown.

Epilepsies caused by Genetic, Congenital, or developmental conditions are more common among younger People, while Brain Tumour's and Strokes are more likely in older People.

Seizures may also occur as a consequence of other health problems; if they occur right around a specific cause, such as a stroke, head injury, toxic ingestion or metabolic problem, they are known as acute symptomatic seizures and are in the broader classification of seizure-related disorders - rather than Epilepsy itself.

Question: Makes sense?

Answer: No, it is more of that regurgitating medical nonsense, all designed to confuse. Not the same as confusion as an emotive tool.

Question: I see Genetics was mentioned above - where does this fit in?

Answer: Genetics is believed to be involved in the majority of cases, either directly or indirectly.

Some Epilepsies are due to a single Gene defect, 1–2%; most are due to the interaction of multiple Genes and Environmental factors.

Each of the single Gene defects is Rare, with more than 200 in all described.

Most Genes involved affect ion channels, either directly or indirectly.

These include Genes for ion channels themselves, enzymes, GABA and G protein-coupled receptors.

Use of the word "Believed" coupled with "directly or indirectly" clearly describes not much is known and we are saving some for a rainy day when there is a pharmaceutical slow down or stopping of the funding stream.

Question: Even though it is nonsense - does Genetics' figure in identical Twins and Epilepsy?

Answer: In identical twins, if one is affected there is a 50-60% chance the other one will also be affected.

In non-identical twins, the risk is 15%.

These risks are greater in those - with generalized rather than partial seizures.

If both twins are affected, most of the time - 70-90%, they have the same Epileptic Syndrome.

Other close relatives of a Person with Epilepsy have a risk five times that of the general population.

Between 1 and 10% of those with Downs syndrome and 90% of those with Angelman syndrome have Epilepsy.

Question: What is Angelman syndrome?

Answer: A name given as a reward to the Person who discovered it was - A rare congenital (born with) disorder characterized by mental disability and a tendency to jerky movement, caused by the absence of certain genes normally present on the copy of chromosome 15 - inherited from the Mother. And did not have a clue as to what they were talking about.

Question: Now, even I can see there is a message here, but not sure - what it is?

Answer: Yes, it confirms the Medical Profession after all of these years does not have a clue as to the cause of Epilepsy - so to appear intelligent - they blame the Genes.

Question: Am I to understand from that answer they are not aware of the consequences of their own finding - as described in the words above?

Answer: This is the truth of it and is a pure demonstration Darwin's theory of evolution was not correct.

Question: Darwin's theory?

Answer: It is the weak or suppressed who create evolutionary change not the strong - they have no need to change. With illness being part of the evolutionary change thus an advantage not a disadvantage.

Question: May I accept and then ask - you gleaned that from. "Inherited from Mother?"

Answer: Yes, you are correct.

Question: More please?

Answer: Earlier I explained I peeked ahead; this is part of what I saw and will be covered later in more detail during my viewpoint of the true cause of Epilepsy.

Question: What is meant when the term. "Acquired," is used in the understanding of Epilepsy?

Answer: Epilepsy may occur as a result of a number of other conditions including Tumour's, strokes, head trauma, previous infections of the central nervous system, genetic abnormalities and as a result of Brain damage - around the time of Birth.

Of those with Brain Tumour's, almost 30% have Epilepsy, making them the cause of about 4% of cases.

The risk is greatest for Tumour's in the temporal lobe and those that grow slowly.

Other mass lesions such as cerebral cavernous malformations and arteriovenous malformations have risks as high as 40-60%.

Of those who have had a stroke, 2-4% develop Epilepsy.

In the United Kingdom strokes account for 15% of cases and it is believed to be the cause in 30% of the elderly.

Between 6 and 20% of Epilepsy is believed to be due to head trauma.

Mild Brain injury increases the risk about two-fold while severe Brain injury increases the risk seven-fold.

In those who have experienced a high-powered gunshot wound to the head, the risk is about 50%.

The risk of Epilepsy following Meningitis is less than 10%; that disease more commonly causes seizures during the infection itself.

In herpes simplex encephalitis, the risk of a seizure is around 50% with a high risk of Epilepsy following (up to 25%.)

Infection with the pork tapeworm, which can result in neurocysticercosis, is the cause of up to half of Epilepsy cases in areas of the world where the parasite is common.

Epilepsy may also occur after other Brain infections such as cerebral malaria, toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis.

Chronic alcohol use increases the risk of Epilepsy: those who drink six units of alcohol per day have a two and a half fold increase in risk.

Other risks include Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, tuberous sclerosis and autoimmune encephalitis.

Question: Tells us?

Answer: What.

Question: Tells us - was a question?

Answer: And my answer was the answer - always Medical Science tells us, "WHAT," - very eloquently, but never truly "WHY."

Are they really so intelligent they are unable to see all of the above are symptoms and not cause even the Gunshot injury and the resulting seizures. 

Question: What if any is the relevance of Birth in the creation of Epilepsy, or what do we as a race of People and our Medical Scientists - not understand?

Answer: Good question. in 1985 I attended a medical seminar where a Doctor was talking about Child Birth in particular Caesarean Section using Hypnosis - Not wishing to interfere with his presentation, in the break I asked him a question.

Instead of discussing the subject he turned tail and ran (not an exaggeration.)

The question to my knowledge is still unanswered today. "Where does Medical Science sit in the understanding of the secretion of the Body Chemical Hormone. "Relaxin" and comfortable Childbirth."

Question: You surely are not going to leave me with that cliff hanger?

Answer: No of course not. Relaxin should be secreted naturally about six weeks prior to a Childs Birth by the Mother, the sole purpose of Relaxin is to relax and soften the connective tissues of the pelvic girdle, Cervix and to my understanding the Vaginal Canal and Opening through which the Child will pass.

Fear depletes the ability of the Mother to make this secretion, causing the requirement of the Child life destroying - PUSH PUSH PUSH, to force the Child through the Pelvic Girdle and Vaginal Canal.

Question: Surely the Medical Profession would be able to synthesise this single hormone?

Answer: True and may well have done so - however at its peril if there was an attempt to use it.

Question: Why?

Answer: When we have a Pain we accept if the Pain dissipates and give us relief, the pill worked. Not realising the pill affected every part of our Body even though the Body is unable to aim the medication directly at the so-called Pain site.

If we accept the activity of the natural Hormone is to soften the connective pelvic tissues, then we surely have to accept if a medication to achieve the same result, even if injected at the site - the Body would not be able to maintain the Muscle tonus to keep the Body together whilst the hormone was active and may well not return to normal after cessation of the medication.         

Question: Is there a real value in being vaccinated and if so - is there an implication in the creation of Epilepsy?

Answer: It is said Medical Science has demonstrated being vaccinated does not increase the risk of Epilepsy.

Question: Do you feel this is the real truth or just the Scientific Proof?

Answer: As is their want or turning against themselves - more and more Highly Qualified Medical Practitioners are speaking publicly about the fraud of Vaccines and of late how they are implicated in the cause of Autism.

Yet, we must also consider the possibility the lives of many People have been saved by the uses of Vaccines.

If we are going to accept this then we must look at some of the illnesses supposed to have been eradicated by mass Vaccine administration - that are still somewhat and somewhere in the world; rampant.

Question: Continuing your point regarding. "Somewhere in the World," is Malnutrition implicated in Epilepsy at all?

Answer: It is reported - Malnutrition is a risk factor seen mostly in the developing world, although - it is unclear if it is a direct cause, or an association.

Question: Do you feel Malnutrition is implicated?

Answer: If we accept Malnutrition as a; "What," the answer is - not in the slightest.

Question: Means?

Answer: To understand this we have to consider Malnutrition is no more than a symptom of an earlier cause.

Question: Means:

Answer: A complex question with many scientifically complex answers - so let us simplify it.

Malnutrition can only survive; if there is Fear causing inadequacy - inability to cope with life's demands and as a consequence a higher Birth rate than the Family and or environment are able to provide sufficient, quality sustenance and not forgetting full - Un fettered Emotional Support.

Aided and abetted by the all-consuming Greed of others, often many thousands of miles away - where the only interest is stripping the land of the intrinsic worth, to which the indigenous People and their country, receive no or very little benefit from.

Question: How are the Mechanism relating to Epilepsy expressed by the Scientific Community?

Answer: Normally Brain electrical activity is non-synchronous.

Its activity is regulated by various factors both within the neuron and the cellular environment.

Factors within the neuron include the type, number and distribution of ion channels, changes to receptors and changes of gene expression.

Factors around the neuron include ion concentrations, synaptic plasticity and regulation of transmitter breakdown by glial cells.

Question: Explanation please?

Answer: Scientific Nonsense - made to sound important.

It is a desperate attempt to explain what is not understood and at the same time explain - it is all of Biological creation.

Question: Are you able to demonstrate that in Epilepsy?

Answer: Of course, when I said I peeked ahead - this is what I observed -

"The exact mechanism of Epilepsy itself is unknown."

However - Little is known about both the cellular and network mechanisms of Epilepsy.

Moreover, it is also unknown - under which circumstances the Brain shifts into the activity of a seizure with its excessive synchronization.

In addition - In Epilepsy the resistance of excitatory neurons to fire during this period is decreased.

This may occur due to changes in ion channels or inhibitory neurons - not functioning properly.

This then results in a specific area from which seizures may develop.

Question: Satisfied - thank you. Where do they go from here?

Answer: They continue this sad and confused state of affairs with. "This process is known as a, "seizure focus."

And - Another mechanism of Epilepsy may be the up-regulation of excitatory circuits or down-regulation of inhibitory circuits following an injury to the Brain.

These secondary Epilepsies occur through processes known as Epileptogenesis.

Question: What is Epiletogenesis?

Answer: Epileptogenesis is the gradual process by which a normal Brain develops Epilepsy.

These changes to the Brain occasionally cause neurons to fire in a hyper-synchronous manner.

This hyper-synchronous firing of neurons is called a seizure.

Question: It is clear. "What," is at play here again - when are we going to get to the "Why?"

Answer: Soon, there is much "What" confusion, to troll through yet.

Failure of the blood-Brain barrier may also be a causal mechanism, as it would allow substances in the Blood to enter the Brain.

Question: What do they mean by. "Substances?"

Answer: I would like to say, "your guess is as good as mine," sadly however, the answer for me if not Medical Science - is very clear.

Question: Well - what is that?

Answer: We will come to that soon.

Question: Are you suggesting there is more to be understood with Seizures?

Answer: Yes a lot more, or maybe from here to the end of this discussion - just a regurgitation by Medical Science in order to confuse or distract readers from understanding; how little is really known about Epilepsy.

There is evidence that Epileptic Seizures are usually - not a random event.

Seizures are often brought on by factors such as lack of sleep, stress or flickering light among others.

The term seizure threshold is used to indicate the amount of stimulus necessary to bring about a seizure.

Seizure threshold is lowered in Epilepsy.

In Epileptic Seizures - a group of neurons begin firing in an abnormal, excessive and synchronized manner

This results in a wave of depolarisation known as a paroxysmal depolarising shift.

Normally, after an excitatory neuron fires - it becomes more resistant to firing for a period of time.

This is due in part to the effect of inhibitory neurons, electrical changes within the excitatory neuron and the negative effects of adenosine.

Partial seizures begin in one hemisphere of the Brain - while generalized seizures begin in both hemispheres.

Some types of seizures may change Brain structure, while others appear to have little effect.

Gliosis, neuronal loss and atrophy of specific areas of the Brain are linked to Epilepsy but it is unclear if Epilepsy causes these changes or if these changes result in Epilepsy.

Question: Point taken and clearly explained? So may we explore Diagnoses?

Answer: Whilst it is reported. An EEG can aid in locating the focus of the Epileptic seizure.

The diagnosis of Epilepsy is typically made based on observation of the seizure onset and the underlying cause.

Neuroimaging to look at the function of the Brain such as electroencephalogram and structure of the Brain such as MRI are also usually part of the workup.

While figuring out a specific Epileptic syndrome is often attempted, it is not always possible.

However - Video and EEG monitoring may be useful in difficult cases.

Question: Is this a demonstration of Guesswork, is the only effective tool Medical Science really has to hand.

Answer: Sadly, this is so. Confirmed by their own Definitions:

Epilepsy is a disorder of the Brain defined by any of the following conditions:

At least two unprovoked or reflex seizures occurring greater than 24 hours apart.

One unprovoked or reflex seizure and a probability of further seizures similar to the general recurrence risk (at least 60%) after two unprovoked seizures, occurring over the next 10 years.

Or in other words watchful waiting - cute word for sub clinical or in its real terminology Primary Cause.

Question: What is Primary Cause?

Answer: Secret code used by the medical profession to give the impression they know something important we do not and therefore cannot; Understand - in realty; the truth is; they do not know.

Question: Is there a cure for Epilepsy or when does the Medical Profession deem it has been cured?

Answer: Like ALL other illnesses there is no definitive scientifically proven cure, however, Epilepsy is considered to be resolved for individuals who had an age-dependent Epilepsy Syndrome but are now past the that age or those who have remained seizure-free for the last 10 years, with no seizure medicines for the last 5 years.

This 2014 definition of the International League Against Epilepsy is a refinement of their 2005 definition, which is, "a disorder of the Brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate Epileptic Seizures and by the neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological and social consequences of this condition."

Question: So in age related Epilepsy is it fair to say it was NOT Medical Science responsible for the cure?

Answer: This must be considered so - they grew out of it by their own action.

Question: Do you feel this was the end or a new beginning?

Answer: If one had a case history for every Person one may well observe they had a later and more destructive MRI recognised style of disorder.

Question: How is Epilepsy defined?

Answer: It is stated - The definition of Epilepsy requires the occurrence of at least one Epileptic Seizure."

In addition, it is therefore possible to outgrow Epilepsy or to undergo treatment that causes the Epilepsy to be resolved.

Question: Surely, this is a definition of a Cure?

Answer: As always in medical parlance - the devil is always in the detail.

Hence, it is scientifically confirmed - Resolution of Epilepsy unfortunately - does not guarantee it will not return.

Question: Is that watchful waiting or invoice creation?

Answer: Both. Confirmed by - In the definition, Epilepsy is now called a Disease, rather than a disorder.

Question: "What?"

Answer: Sadly so. It appears this was a decision of the executive committee of a major Epilepsy group, taken because the word "disorder," while perhaps having less stigma than does "disease," does not express the degree of seriousness that Epilepsy deserves.

The definition is practical in nature and designed for clinical use.

Question: Have we not and for quite a number of years been in the process of removing the stigma of illness - not increasing it?

Answer: This is the truth of it - sadly, for anyone concerned from the clinical side of things that includes charities to support sufferers - if the stigma is removed it would destroy their profits, no profit in a cure of an illness everyone accepts as normal.

Question: Where does that leave? Researchers, statistically minded epidemiologists and other specialised groups?

Answer: These may choose to use the older definition or a definition of their own devising - Very profitable.

Question: So is this acceptable activity for such a prestigious group?

Answer: The Committee having made the decision - considers doing so is perfectly allowable, so long as it is clear what definition is being used.

Question: So with this form of contradiction or perhaps better-said confusion - how are dedicated clinicians supposed to really and truthfully put this into a satisfactory Classification?

Answer: In contrast to the classification of seizures that focuses on what happens during a seizure, the classification of Epilepsies focuses on the underlying causes.

When a Person is admitted to hospital after an Epileptic Seizure the diagnostic workup results preferably in the seizure itself being classified - e.g. tonic-clonic and in the underlying disease being identified - e.g. hippocampal sclerosis.

The name of the diagnosis finally made depends on the available diagnostic results and the applied definitions and classifications of Seizures, Epilepsies and the respective terminology.

The committee Against Epilepsy provided a classification of the Epilepsies and Epileptic syndromes as follows:

Localization-related Epilepsies and Syndromes.

Unknown cause - benign Childhood Epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

Symptomatic/cryptogenic - temporal lobe Epilepsy.


Unknown cause - Childhood absence Epilepsy.

Cryptogenic or symptomatic - Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Symptomatic - early infantile Epileptic encephalopathy with suppression burst.

Epilepsies and syndromes undetermined whether partial or generalized.

With both generalized and partial seizures.

Epilepsy with continuous spike-waves during slow wave sleep.

Special syndromes with situation-related seizures.

Question: Does all of this give rise to believe a lot is known these days or not?

Answer: No, it is all regurgitating profit making nonsense of no long-term value in the understanding and indeed secure treatment of - Simple, let alone complex Epilepsy.

Question: Does this demonstrate more criticisms from the inside - rather than from external sources?

Answer: Yes, this is so - This classification was widely accepted, but has also been criticized mainly because the underlying causes of Epilepsy, which are a major determinant of clinical course and prognosis, were not covered in detail.

Question: As a result of the criticisms, were any changes considered or implemented?

Answer: In 2010 - the Commission for Classification of the Epilepsies addressed this issue and divided Epilepsies into three categories: genetic, structural/metabolic and unknown cause.

These were refined in the 2011 recommendation into four categories and a number of subcategories - reflecting recent technologic and scientific advances...

...Unknown cause - mostly genetic or presumed genetic origin.

Pure Epilepsies due to single gene disorders.

Pure Epilepsies with complex inheritance.

Symptomatic - associated with gross anatomic or pathologic abnormalities.

Mostly genetic or developmental causation.

Childhood Epilepsy Syndromes.

Progressive myoclonic Epilepsies.

Neurocutaneous syndromes.

Other neurologic single gene disorders.

Disorders of chromosome function.

Developmental anomalies of cerebral structure.

Mostly acquired causes.

Hippocampal sclerosis.

Perinatal and infantile causes.

Cerebral trauma, tumour or infection.

Cerebrovascular disorders.

Cerebral immunologic disorders.

Degenerative and other neurologic conditions.

Provoked - a specific systemic or environmental factor is the predominant cause of the seizures.

Question: What is "Provoked" and are there other Provoking factors?

Answer: Here are a few.

Reflex Epilepsies.

Crytogenic - presumed symptomatic nature in which the cause has not been identified.


Question: Help me please; I am floundering?

Answer: Help is at hand - all of this is no more than a regurgitation in new words and expressions of earlier findings - presumably to satisfy some governing body or research funding provider, desperate to sell more medications or surgical interventions.

In reality not much to do with alleviating suffering by finding a cure.

Question: Please demonstrate some validity of your comments?

Answer: Of course - We must always remember the framework of this paper and the comments contained within and below are in fact a collection of the available medical research, where the main article: Epilepsy Syndromes - is in the public domain on Wikipedia. To who; once again I thank them for their incredible work in presenting this paper for us to evaluate.

Cases of Epilepsy may be organized into Epilepsy Syndromes by the specific features that are present.

These features include the age that seizures begin, the seizure types, EEG findings, among others.

Identifying an Epilepsy Syndrome is useful, as it helps determine the underlying causes as well as what anti-seizure medication should be tried.

The ability to categorize a case of Epilepsy into a specific syndrome occurs more often with Children - since the onset of seizures is commonly early.

Less serious examples are benign Rolandic Epilepsy (2.8 per 100,000), Childhood Absence Epilepsy (0.8 per 100,000) and juvenile myoclonic Epilepsy (0.7 per 100,000.)

Severe syndromes with diffuse Brain dysfunction caused, at least partly, by some aspect of Epilepsy, are also referred to as Epileptic Encephalopathies.

These are associated with frequent seizures that are resistant to treatment and severe cognitive dysfunction, for instance Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and West syndrome.

Genetics is believed to play an important role in Epilepsies by a number of mechanisms.

Simple and complex modes of inheritance have been identified for some of them.

However, extensive screenings have failed to identify many single gene variants of large effect.

More recent exome and genome sequencing studies have begun to reveal a number of de novo (From the new, implying anew or from scratch) gene mutations that are responsible for some Epileptic encephalopathies, including CHD2 and SYNGAP1and DMN1, GABBR2, FASN and RYR3.

Syndromes in which causes are not clearly identified are difficult to match with categories of the current classification of Epilepsy.

Categorization for these cases was made somewhat arbitrarily based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system.

The idiopathic - unknown cause category of the 2011 classification includes syndromes in which the general clinical features and/or age specificity strongly point to a presumed genetic cause.

Some Childhood Epilepsy Syndromes are included in the unknown cause category in which the cause is presumed genetic, for instance benign Rolandic Epilepsy.

Others are included in symptomatic despite a presumed genetic cause in at least some cases, for instance Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Clinical syndromes in which Epilepsy is not the main feature - Angelman syndrome were categorized symptomatic - but it was argued to include these within the category idiopathic.

Classification of Epilepsies and particularly of Epilepsy Syndromes will change with advances in research.

Question: If we try to collate all of the above from this last burst of information - are Tests really of long-term value in the understanding and treatment of Epilepsy? And what about all these posh sounding names

Answer: An electroencephalogram (EEG) can assist in showing Brain activity suggestive of an increased risk of seizures. Indeed names are just that and of no value if the cause is not known or a cure produced.

It is only recommended for those who are likely to have had an Epileptic Seizure on the basis of symptoms.

In the diagnosis of Epilepsy, electroencephalography may help distinguish the type of seizure or syndrome present.

In Children - it is typically only needed after a second seizure.

It cannot be used to rule out the diagnosis and may be falsely positive in those without the disease.

In certain situations - it may be useful to perform the EEG while the affected individual is sleeping or sleep deprived.

Diagnostic imaging by CT scan and MRI is recommended after a first non-febrile seizure to detect structural problems in and around the Brain.

MRI is generally a better imaging test except when bleeding is suspected, for which CT is more sensitive and more easily available.

If someone attends the emergency room with a seizure but returns to normal quickly, imaging tests may be done at a later point.

If a Person has a previous diagnosis of Epilepsy with previous imaging, repeating the imaging is usually not needed - even if there are subsequent seizures. No Brain Plasticity is to be seen or expected.

For adults, the testing of electrolyte, blood glucose and calcium levels is important to rule out problems with these as causes.

An electrocardiogram can rule out problems with the rhythm of the heart.

A lumbar puncture may be useful to diagnose a central nervous system infection - but is not routinely needed.

In Children - additional tests may be required such as urine biochemistry and blood testing looking for metabolic disorders.

A high blood prolactin level within the first 20 minutes following a seizure may be useful to help confirm an Epileptic Seizure as opposed to psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizure.

Serum prolactin level is less useful for detecting partial seizures.

If it is normal - an Epileptic Seizure is still possible and a serum prolactin does not separate Epileptic Seizures from Syncope - a temporary loss of consciousness caused by a fall in blood pressure.

It is not recommended as a routine part of the diagnosis of Epilepsy.

Question: What is a Differential Diagnosis?

Answer: It appears when a Diagnosis of Epilepsy - which can be difficult is attempted, a number of other conditions may present very similar signs and symptoms to seizures.

Including syncope, hyperventilation, migraines, narcolepsy, panic attacks and psychogenic (of Mind cause) non-Epileptic seizures.

In particular - syncope can be accompanied by a short episode of convulsions.

Nocturnal frontal lobe Epilepsy, often misdiagnosed as nightmares, was considered to be a parasomnia but later identified to be Epileptic.

Attacks of the movement disorder paroxysmal dyskinesia may be taken for Epileptic Seizures.

The cause of a drop attack can be, among many others, an atonic seizure.

Children may have behaviours that are easily mistaken for Epileptic Seizures but are not.

These include breath-holding spells, bed-wetting, night terrors, tics and shudder attacks.

Gastroesophageal reflux may cause arching of the back and twisting of the head to the side in infants, which may be mistaken for tonic-clonic seizures.

Misdiagnosis is frequent occurring in about 5 to 30% of cases.

Different studies showed that in many cases seizure-like attacks in apparent treatment-resistant Epilepsy have a cardiovascular cause.

Approximately 20% of the People seen at Epilepsy clinics have PNES (Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures) and of those who have about 10% also have Epilepsy; separating the two based on the seizure episode alone without further testing is often difficult.

Question: Says What?

Answer: Indeed "What" means in real terms - If "we" in The Medical Profession accepted we have a Mind then we would not be required to try to sound important - we would really know what we are talking about.

Confirmed by this, "often misdiagnosed as nightmares."

Question: Is there a factor where Prevention plays an active part?

Answer: One would like to think so!

However, the reports continue to suggest - While many cases are not preventable, efforts to reduce head injuries, provide good care around the time of birth and reduce environmental parasites such as the pork tapeworm - may be effective.

Efforts in one part of Central America to decrease rates of pork tapeworm resulted in a 50% decrease in new cases of Epilepsy.

Question: Like in so many illnesses - As Management of illnesses is only of short-term efficacy, is it any different in Epilepsy?

Answer: Management of Epilepsy is usually with daily medication once a second seizure has occurred, but for those at high risk, medication may be started after the first seizure.

In some cases, a special diet, the implantation of a neurostimulator, or neurosurgery may be required.

Question: Is suggestive of?

Answer: If only "we" Doctors knew the Mind was at work - we would not still have to guess in late 2015.

Question: Where does First Aid fit into the program of understanding and working with Epilepsy?

Answer: As always - it is essential we recognise our dedicated front line medical teams are doing their very best with old-fashioned profit making tools, techniques and understandings, not of their own creation - thus First Aid, another word for management, is a necessity.

Rolling a Person with an active tonic-clonic seizure onto their side and into the recovery position helps prevent fluids from getting into the lungs.

Putting fingers, a bite block or tongue depressor in the mouth is not recommended as it might make the Person vomit or result in the rescuer being bitten.

Efforts should be taken to prevent further self-injury.

Spinal precautions are generally not needed.

If a seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes or if there are more than two seizures in an hour without a return to a normal level of consciousness between them, it is considered a medical emergency known as Status Epilepticus.

This may require medical help to keep the airway open and protected; a nasopharyngeal airway may be useful for this.

At home - the recommended initial medication for seizure of a long duration is midazolam placed in the mouth.

Diazepam may also be used rectally.

In hospital, intravenous lorazepam is preferred.

If two doses of benzodiazepines are not effective, other medications such as phenytoin are recommended.

Convulsive Status Epilepticus that does not respond to initial treatment typically requires admission to the intensive care unit and treatment with stronger agents such as thiopentone or propofol.

Question: What is Status Epilepticus?

Answer: Like the word often used in the emergency room STAT (NOW) - Status Epilepticus is a slang word to ensure - they sound important and know what they are doing. In reality saying. "The Person is having a fit!"

Questions: I know as you are not medically qualified medications are not in your remit - may we discuss them in an abstract way?

Answer: Yes, it is outside of the law, as well as being morally and therapeutically wrong for me to involve myself in medications - other than knowing a Person I am treating has been legally prescribed or otherwise taking them.

May we also remember the comments are from the Wikipedia paper and only aided in presentation by my editing.

It is well published - The mainstay treatment of Epilepsy is anticonvulsant medications, possibly for the Person's entire life.

The choice of anticonvulsant is based on seizure type, Epilepsy Syndrome, other medications used, other health problems and the Person's age and lifestyle.

A single medication is recommended initially; if this is not effective, switching to a single or another medication is recommended.

Two medications at once are recommended - only if a single medication does not work.

In about half, the first agent is effective; a second single agent helps in about 13% and a third or two agents at the same time may help an additional 4%.

About 30% of People continue to have seizures despite anticonvulsant treatment.

There are a number of medications available.

Phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate appear to be equally effective in both partial and generalized seizures.

Controlled release carbamazepine appears to work as well as immediate release carbamazepine and may have fewer side effects.

In the United Kingdom, carbamazepine or lamotrigine are recommended as first-line treatment for partial seizures, with levetiracetam and valproate as second-line due to issues of cost and side effects.

Valproate is recommended first-line for generalized seizures with lamotrigine being second-line.

In those with absence seizures, ethosuximide or valproate are recommended; valproate is particularly effective in myoclonic seizures and tonic or atonic seizures.

If seizures are well-controlled on a particular treatment, it is not usually necessary to routinely check the medication levels in the blood.

The least expensive anticonvulsant is phenobarbital at around $5 USD a year.

The World Health Organization gives it a first-line recommendation in the developing world and it is commonly used there.

Access however may be difficult as some countries label it as a controlled drug.

Adverse effects from medications are reported in 10 to 90% of People, depending on how and from whom the data is collected.

Most adverse effects are dose-related and mild.

Some examples include mood changes, sleepiness, or an unsteadiness in gait.

Certain medications have side-effects that are not related to dose such as rashes, liver toxicity or suppression of the bone marrow.

Up to a quarter of People - stop treatment due to adverse effects.

Some medications are associated with Birth defects when used in pregnancy.

Valproate is of particular concern, especially during the first trimester.

Despite this, treatment is often continued once effective, because the risk of untreated Epilepsy is believed to be greater - than the risk of the medications.

Slowly stopping medications may be reasonable in some People who do not have a seizure for two to four years; however, around a third of People have a recurrence, most often during the first six months.

Stopping is possible in about 70% of Children and 60% of Adults.

Question: All very illuminating - what about Surgery?

Answer: The papers suggest - Epilepsy surgery may be an option for People with partial seizures - that remain a problem despite other treatments.

These other treatments include at least a trial of two or three medications.

The goal of surgery is total control of seizures and this may be achieved in 60-70% of cases.

Common procedures include cutting out the hippocampus via an anterior temporal lobe resection, removal of Tumour's and removing parts of the neocortex.

Some procedures such as a corpus callosotomy are attempted in an effort to decrease the number of seizures - rather than cure the condition.

Following surgery, medications may be slowly withdrawn in many cases.

Neurostimulation may be another option in those who are not candidates for surgery.

Three types have been shown to be effective in those who do not respond to medications: vagus nerve stimulation, anterior thalamic stimulation and closed-loop responsive stimulation.

Question: Are there other approaches in the form of symptoms management - in the absence of a cure?

Answer: Yes indeed, it appears there are - however we must accept Desperate People do desperate things and one of them is not accepting failure when it stares one in the face.

A ketogenic diet - high-fat, low-carbohydrate, adequate-protein appears to decrease the number of seizures by half in about 30-40% of Children.

It is a reasonable option in those who have Epilepsy that is not improved with medications and for whom surgery is not an option.

Question: Has exercise been considered?

Answer: Whilst is has to be recognised People in order to be healthy have to have some form of exercise - it has to be recognised People can only do what they can and no amount of goading will ensure they are long-term able to do more.

However - It has been suggested - Exercise is possibly useful for preventing seizures with some data to support this claim.

Question: Are there other forms of therapy being used or considered?

Answer: Indeed there is - Avoidance therapy consists of minimizing or eliminating triggers.

For example, in those who are sensitive to light, using a small television, avoiding video-games or wearing dark glasses may be useful.

Operant-based biofeedback based on the EEG waves has some support in those who do not respond to medications.

Question: As you continually demonstrate by Medical Science own words and Scientifically Proven papers they do not know much of worth at all - what would there reaction be to Therapies of the Mind?

Answer: It is reported in such Scientifically proven papers Psychological methods should not, however, be used to replace medications.

Question: Would you agree or disagree with this viewpoint?

Answer: Of course I would - any therapist having only the Patients best interest as a concern that interfered with medications, needs their Brain examined.

In the same manner any Medially Trained Person not willing to work with a Therapist using only Mind-Body orientated Talking therapy ought to undergo a lobotomy to see if they had a Brain - let alone a Mind.

Question: When one considers the untapped ability of Animals in our world - are animals used in any form of Seizure control or treatment?

Answer: Recognising an impending earthquake would be a clear demonstration of Animals sensory ability - it is reported. Some Dogs, also referred to as Seizure Dogs, may help during or after a seizure.

However - It is not clear if Dogs have the ability to predict seizures before they occur.

Question: How does Medical Science view or even use any form of Alternative medicine?

Answer: In answering this question, I am obliged to remember a quote I wrote a while ago...

"...If you are the one making the smoke - what right do you have calling the Kettle Black;"

Alternative medicine, including acupuncture, psychological interventions, routine vitamins and yoga, have no reliable evidence to support their use in epilepsy.

Melatonin is insufficiently supported by evidence.

There is not enough evidence to support the use of cannabis. However; One may consider this is under review in line with the recent interest in the use of Cannabis in treating many illnesses.

Question: Do you have any views regarding Cannabis use in the treatment of long standing mysterious no known cause and no known cure illness and in this instance Epilepsy?

Answer: As always the devil is in the detail. "If Medical Science says it has the Scientific Proof," yet is unable to or never demonstrates it really does and as Desperate People will do desperate things - they will turn to anything in pursuit of Understanding and satisfactory relief of their illness woes. Demonstrated by...

...Epilepsy cannot usually be cured, but medication can control seizures effectively in about 70% of cases.

Question: Now please answer my question? Do you have a view about the use of so-called Medical Cannabis?

Answer: Sadly, I feel this is just about the most self-destructive understanding Medical Science has ever made. For it will be a self-destroying prophesy of the entire Medical Profession as we know it.

For in the interim - Cannabis will not only show efficacy in many of the so-called mysterious illness Medical Science has in real terms never had control of, it will destroy the use of many if not all of the so called medications used to poorly manage all illness.

However - it is the long-term we should be most interested in...

Since time began Mankind has sought to understand and cure illness and the only measurable success in late 2015 - is of total Failure.

Are we really to believe Cannabis - whether Natural or of Medical manipulation will long term show success as still today NO ONE will truly accept...

...the Mind creates all we survey.

Of those with generalized seizures, more than 80% can be well controlled with medications...

...while this is true in only 50% of People with partial seizures.

One predictor of long-term outcome is the number of seizures that occur in the first six months.

Other factors increasing the risk of a poor outcome include little response to the initial treatment, generalized seizures, a family history of Epilepsy, psychiatric problems and waves on the EEG representing generalized epileptiform activity.

In the developing world - 75% of People are either untreated or not appropriately treated.

In one so called underdeveloped or emerging country - 90% do not get treatment.

This is partly related to appropriate medications not being available or being too expensive.

With 100,000 illnesses recognised and diagnosed by the Medical Profession still awaiting the true cause and a definitive cure to be found - one has to consider there is enough smoke being generated by bad Medical Science to - like the Volcanic Eruption that in 1883 completely destroyed the island Krakatoa in Indonesia and is possibly a serious contributory factor to what is cutely known as Climate Change and Cannabis in all of its forms will be revolutionary in the medium outcome of obliterating Medical Science for ever...  

Question: How does the Medical Profession explain Mortality?

Answer: One may consider in every scientifically proven paper relating to Epilepsy it would state with a serious amount of Provenance (Chronology of ownership) - People with Epilepsy are at an increased risk of Death.

This increase is between 1.6 and 4.1 fold greater than that of the general population and is often related to; the underlying cause of the seizures, status epilepticus, suicide, trauma, and sudden unexpected death in Epilepsy (SUDEP.)

Death from status epilepticus is primarily due to an underlying problem rather than missing doses of medications.

The risk of suicide is increased between two and six times in those with Epilepsy...

...The cause of this is unclear.

SUDEP appears to be partly related to the frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and accounts for about 15% of Epilepsy related deaths...

...It is unclear how to decrease its risk.

The greatest increase in mortality from Epilepsy is among the elderly...

...Those with Epilepsy due to an unknown cause have little increased risk.

In the United Kingdom, it is estimated that 40-60% of Deaths are possibly preventable.

In the developing world - many Deaths are due to untreated Epilepsy leading to falls or Status Epilepticus.

Question: What is Epidemiology and how useful is it in the understanding of ill health?

Answer: Epidemiology - is the study of the patterns, causes and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

It is the cornerstone of public health and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice, by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for - preventive healthcare.

Demonstrated by;

Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders affecting about 65 million People globally.

It affects 1% of the population by age 20 and 3% of the population by age 75.

It is more common in Males than Females with the overall difference being small.

Most of those with the disorder (80%) are in the developing world.

The number of People who currently have active Epilepsy is in the range 5-10 per 1,000, with active Epilepsy defined as someone with Epilepsy who has had a least one seizure in the last five years

Epilepsy begins each year in 40-70 per 100,000 in developed countries and 80-140 per 100,000 in developing countries.

Poverty is a risk and includes both being from a poor country and being poor relative to others within one's country.

In the developed world - Epilepsy most commonly starts either in the young or in the old.

In the developing world, its onset is more common in older Children and Young Adults due to the higher rates of trauma and infectious diseases.

In developed countries - the number of cases a year has decreased in Children and increased among the elderly between the 1970s and 2003.

This has been attributed partly to better survival following strokes in the elderly.

Question: What does this unwittingly tell us?

Answer: If one looks under a gooseberry bush expecting to find a Child - one is looking in the wrong place, on purpose!

Question: It is strange how it appears all Medical and Scientifically Proven papers end up by what one may consider most important to start such a discussion as this - with the History.

Answer: It does seem strange but this appears to be the order of how things are Scientifically Written up.

The oldest medical records show that Epilepsy has been affecting People at least since the beginning of recorded history.

Throughout ancient history, the disorder was thought to be a spiritual condition.

The world's oldest description of an Epileptic Seizure comes from a text in Akkadian - a language used in ancient Mesopotamia and was written around 2000 BC.

The Person described in the text was diagnosed as being under the influence of a Moon God and underwent an exorcism.

Epileptic Seizures are listed in the Code of Hammurabi (c. 1790 BC) as reason for which a purchased slave may be returned for a refund and the Edwin Smith Papyrus (c. 1700 BC) describes cases of individuals with Epileptic Convulsions.

The oldest known detailed record of the disorder itself is in the Sakikku, a Babylonian cuneiform medical text from 1067–1046 BC.

This text gives signs and symptoms, details treatment and likely outcomes and describes many features of the different seizure types.

As the Babylonians had no biomedical understanding of the nature of disease, they attributed the seizures to possession by evil spirits and called for treating the condition through spiritual means.

Around 900 BC, Punarvasu Atreya described Epilepsy as loss of Consciousness; this definition was carried forward into the Ayurvedic text of Charaka Samhita (about 400 BC).

The ancient Greeks had contradictory views of the disease.

They thought of Epilepsy as a form of spiritual possession, but also associated the condition with genius and the divine.

One of the names they gave to it was the sacred disease.

Epilepsy appears within Greek mythology: it is associated with the Moon goddesses Selene and Artemis, who afflicted those who upset them.

The Greeks thought that important figures such as Julius Caesar and Hercules had the disease.

The notable exception to this divine and spiritual view was that of the school of Hippocrates. In the fifth century BC, Hippocrates rejected the idea that the disease was caused by spirits.

In his landmark work On the Sacred Disease, he proposed that Epilepsy was not divine in origin and instead was a medically treatable problem originating in the Brain.

He accused those of attributing a sacred cause to the disease of spreading ignorance through a belief in superstitious magic.

Hippocrates proposed that heredity was important as a cause, described worse outcomes if the disease presents at an early age and made note of the physical characteristics as well as the social shame associated with it.

Instead of referring to it as the sacred disease, he used the term "great disease," giving rise to the modern term "grand mal," used for generalized seizures.

Despite his work detailing the physical origins of the disease, his view was not accepted at the time.

Evil spirits continued to be blamed until at least the 17th century.

In most cultures, Persons with Epilepsy have been stigmatized, shunned, or even imprisoned; in the Salpêtrière, the birthplace of modern neurology, Jean-Martin Charcot found People with Epilepsy side-by-side with the mentally ill, those with chronic syphilis and the criminally insane.

In ancient Rome, Epilepsy was known as the Morbus Comitialis ('disease of the assembly hall') and was seen as a curse from the Gods.

In northern Italy, Epilepsy was once traditionally known as Saint Valentine's malady.

In the mid-1800s - the first effective anti-seizure medication, bromide, was introduced.
The first modern treatment, phenobarbital, was developed in 1912, with phenytoin coming into use in 1938.

Question: Where do you stand in 2015 on the possibility - Hippocrates rejected the idea that the disease was caused by spirits and  his proposed, "Epilepsy was not divine in origin, instead was a medically treatable problem originating in the Brain" - yet; He accused those of attributing a sacred cause to the disease of spreading ignorance through a belief in superstitious magic.

Answer: I stand resolute - if Hippocrates and I were sat in debate, our thinking on this subject would be as one and he would be open-mined enough to accept my update on his thinking - the disease was of the Mind that instructed the Brain.

In addition, accept my update based on the generations of intelligence that has passed that the "Superstitious Magic" he referred to as "Spreading Ignorance," is today called "Scientifically Proven Evidenced Based Medicine.

Question: Of novel and interesting value - but where does it lead, up to today?

Answer: If one reads and comprehends the above Edwin Smith Papyrus (c. 1700 BC) (no relation to myself. Peter Patrick Edwin Smith) describes cases of individuals with Epileptic Convulsions.

Surely Epileptic (or even just) Convulsions is the only name required by clear thinking medical personnel, as it is clear all the others only leave them in late 2015 - with no known cause and no known cure. Or is this as intended!

Question: Where does all of this leave us in regards to Society, culture and Stigma?

Answer: Stigma is commonly experienced around the world, by those with Epilepsy.

It can affect People economically, socially and culturally.

In countries with very large controlled populations - Epilepsy may be used as justification to deny marriage.

People in some areas still believe those with Epilepsy to be cursed.

In countries steeped in traditions - Epilepsy is associated with possession by evil spirits, witchcraft, or poisoning and is believed by many to be contagious, for which there is no evidence.

Before 1970 - the United Kingdom had laws that prevented People with Epilepsy from marrying.

The stigma may result in some People with Epilepsy denying - that they have ever had seizures.

Excuse me one has to laugh.

Question: Why?

Answer: It is not just that People ill do not want anyone to take away their illness - as illness is an advantage this is true, for without the illness they would have no methods of gathering the understanding of the true cause of their illness.

The real truthful answer is many hundreds of years ago the early pioneers in medical knowledge decided. "They could take away the illness."

In addition as a population, we were content to let them, as it took away the responsibility that our Parents caused our illness and on Parents instructions, we, via our now negative thoughts and entire body chemistry - created it.

Sadly - as the years went on those in control of us and our health concerns realised. "Well People do not provide funds," but under the prevailing circumstances above, "will pay for continuing failure of successive treatments."

As it affords a protection to their Parents who caused the illness and now as Children, entering Adulthood there is a subconscious message - to always do as we have always done and in so doing perpetuates our Parents control of us onto our own Children...

- we have the explanation of so-called Genetic or inherited illness.

Question: Heavy - but can you demonstrate this?

Answer: Sure can - with Economics:

Seizures result in direct economic costs of about one billion in local currency for one very large country.

And in a very large collection of countries - Epilepsy resulted in economic costs around 15.5 billion in 2004.

In one very heavily populated country - Epilepsy is estimated to result in costs of 0.5% of the GDP.

It is the cause of about 1% of emergency department visits - 2% for emergency departments for Children in one large and westernised country.

All leaving one to consider this moneymaking situation may well be Pandemic.

Question: Are there vehicle control restrictions with Epilepsy?

Answer: The data appears to suggest - Those with Epilepsy are at about twice the risk of being involved in a motor vehicular collision and thus in many areas of the world are not allowed to drive or only able to drive if certain conditions are met.

In some places - physicians are required by law to report if a Person has had a seizure to the licensing body while in others the requirement is only that they encourage the Person in question to report it themselves.

There are many Countries that require physician reporting...

As there are Countries that require the individual to self-report and the physician may report if they believe - the individual has not already.

In other countries the requirements around reporting appears to vary by province or state.

Moreover - Many Countries feel, if seizures are well controlled allowing driving is reasonable.

Also, it has to be accepted - The amount of time a Person must be free from seizures before they can drive, can vary by country.

Rightfully one has to consider - Many countries require one to three years without seizures.

Although others Countries allow the time needed without a seizure to be determined by each state and can be between three months and one year.

Those with Epilepsy or Seizures are typically denied a pilot license.

In one country legislation suggest - if an individual has had no more than one seizure, they may be considered after five years for a limited license, if all other testing is normal.

In addition - Those with febrile seizures and drug related seizures may also be considered.

Question: Do you have any thoughts or feelings regarding Support organizations?

Answer: There are many organisations that provide support for People and Families affected by Epilepsy.

There is also a joint effort by the World Health Organization and others in the fight Against Epilepsy that provides help internationally.

As well as the UK and Ireland.

In the other countries - Epilepsy Foundations work nationally to increase the acceptance of those with the disease, their ability to function in society and to promote research for a cure.

Some hospitals and some individuals also run support groups in some Countries.

Question: Is this approach successful?

Answer: In order to answer that one must surely consider Research and the current Scientific knowledge...

Seizure prediction refers to attempts to forecast Epileptic seizures based on the EEG before they occur.

As of 2011, no effective mechanisms to predict seizures has been developed.

Kindling belief, where repeated exposures to events that could cause seizures eventually causes seizures more easily, has been used to create animal models of Epilepsy.

Gene therapy is being studied in some types of Epilepsy.

Medications that alter immune function, such as intravenous immunoglobulins, are poorly supported by evidence.

Non-invasive stereotactic radiosurgery is, as of 2012, being compared to standard surgery for certain types of Epilepsy.

Somewhat says it all - does it not.

Question: Just for the record may we list the Types of Seizures and the various avenues of approach Medical Science has created - but still does not truly know the cause of and by its own hand - does not have a cure.

Answer: Of course, always happy to provide a different viewpoint.

About Epilepsy: The Basics - tools techniques and understandings.

Types of Seizures.

Absence Seizures.

Atypical Absence Seizures.

Atonic Seizures.

Clonic Seizures.

Myoclonic Seizures.

Tonic Seizures.

Tonic-Clonic Seizures.

Simple Partial Seizures.

Complex Partial Seizures.

Secondarily Generalized Seizures.

Febrile Seizures.

Non-epileptic Seizures.

Refractory Seizures.

New Terms and Concepts for Seizures and Epilepsy.

Gelastic and Dacrystic Seizures.

Types of Epilepsy Syndromes.

Triggers of Seizures.

Epilepsy Statistics.



Treating Seizures and Epilepsy.

Refractory Epilepsy.

Diverse Communities.

Seizure and Epilepsy News.

Seizures in Youth.

Gender Issues.

Age Groups.

Surely all of this must allow some governing body to come to a conclusion - even if it is. "We give up," at least from this basic foundation we can start to understand this and all other illnesses as a Process of the Mind.

Question: May we summarise all of this information and if required bring in any new points?

Answer: Yes, we may, it is part of the discovery process used by Doctors locked in to Medical Science to understand - Seizures take many forms.

And before a Doctor can prescribe the right treatment, he or she must figure out which type, or types a Person has.

That is the purpose of all the tests discussed in the Diagnosis section - not just to tell whether one has Epilepsy, but also to tell what kind.

There are many Commonly Used Names for Seizure Types.

Seizures are generally described in two major groups of seizures, primary generalized seizures and partial seizures.

The difference between these types - is in how and where they begin.

A new way of naming seizures has been developed by Epilepsy specialists, but most often - these common names are still used.

Primary generalized seizures...

Primary generalized seizures begin with a widespread electrical discharge that involves both sides of the Brain at once.

Hereditary factors are important in many of these seizures.

Partial seizures...

Partial seizures begin with an electrical discharge in one limited area of the Brain.

Many different things can cause partial seizures, for example head injury, brain infection, stroke, tumour, or changes in the way an area of the Brain was formed before Birth called cortical dysplasias.

Many times, no known cause is found, but genetic factors, "may," be important in some partial seizures.

Partial seizures can be broken down further, depending on whether a Person's awareness or consciousness the ability to respond and remember - is affected.

Note how sweetly this Medical Science paper slips in:

New ways of naming seizures, but mostly old names are used.

Electrical discharge, without giving credence to the real reason for this.

No known cause, but genetic factors may be important, without demonstrating detail.

Finely; Awareness and consciousness, respond and remember - given no credibility at all.

Question: Would I be right in saying all of this so-called Scientific Proof after some four thousand years - amounts to nothing at all, just in this last answer?

Answer: Sadly, this is so - but it also has a hidden explanation and meaning.

Question: What is the hidden meaning?

Answer: When one stands back and looks at Medical Science so often they say something like, "During the study it was not realised the importance of (insert subject.)"

Thus in part the hidden meaning must be to ensure the CHILD LIKE excitement of Medical Science remains - "we must keep looking for the cause,"  failing to suggest - if we found the true cause no governing body, university or pharmaceutical company would fund new research, as it would interfere with their profits.

Question: Does this suggest Epilepsy and Seizures Help lines are helpful?

Answer: It would be nice to think they do and not so nice to suggest they do not - to contact a help line, this surely is a perhaps to be considered - a desperate plea for satisfactory answers, thus an individual's personal opinion.

However - I would have to question if these extracts from online discussion are really in the interest of a Person made desperate by seizures and lack of medical information that helped.

Hi. We cannot give you advice as to what type of seizures they may have had.

If you are not happy with the diagnosis, you might consider seeing another physician.

Not all seizures show in an EEG.

You might want to read up on the diagnosis process.

We cannot provide you with medical advice.

This is something you need to speak with your treating physician about and keep them informed about how the treatment is working or not - so that a Doctor can make the proper adjustments.

We cannot provide individual medical advice.

If you do not agree with your Doctor, we suggest getting a second opinion.

Question: Where does that leave a Person or a very frightened Family Member?

Answer: Caught in the revolving door of Scientific Medicine and Charity Profit Making. Or Up the paddle without a creek - lost in the mire of Medical Success at proving it knows very little but is not noticed by a Person so affected - because their Mind is all fogged up by desperation.

Although I am not able to say concisely but perhaps in a manner of speaking in a more understandable form as I suggested at the very beginning with; Questions with no Answers - Answers with no Questions.

Therefore I am able to give an understanding as to the originating cause of this medical mystery, after some Four Thousand Years of perhaps to be considered - intense and in recent years - very costly study?

In addition, I explained during a Twitter exchange in 2011 and of course - it fits in all Talking Cures findings and therapeutic applications...

Twitter exchange - I am unable to help with a support group but would be willing to answer any questions one may put to a self-help group which medical professionals may have been unable too.

First, we must have some understandings,

Talking Cures and I are not to be seen as medically trained or an alternative to any medical teams, more and in addition.

Talking Cures never attempts to interfere with other clinicians treatments.

Talking Cures specialises in an educating style treatment of long-term multiple symptoms and medical mysteries, which works in a way that the Person internally and automatically switches on their own immune system to create repair, even though the symptoms may have reached an advanced stage.

Understanding how and more important when the illness was created will allow a greater degree of comfort and possible the work with medical teams to be more effective.

There is a clue to the Epilepsy - if say a Person has had it since they were 13.

To understand the cause of this you must look back - plus or minus - Seven years, to an event that placed a Person in extreme fear.

Following this they would try to make sense of the incident but were not able to do this satisfactorily, therefore the pressure (Anxiety) the Fear created had to find a way to escape (be relieved) - demonstrated by the Epilepsy, some seven years later.

Once the Epilepsy was diagnosed and treated such a Person would be then on the way to another escape of the pressure; another symptom or even a different style of an Epileptic Seizure.

In the first instant - a Person would not be able to agree with this, but by being as patient as possible will allow the Mind to make some sense of this statement.

One has to accept this process is on-going until the Mind is able to make the necessary alterations in its thinking process in the way it instructs the Brain and Body, via the entire Body Chemical and Electrical processes to demonstrate wellness - as a Right not a Gift.

Although it was explained - Please feel free to email me at any time or contact me through Skype Talking.Cures and I will do the best I am able to answer any questions you may have. I heard no more!

Question: If I had Epilepsy - I feel sure the level of confusion with all this information would be too much to bear.

Please explain the true cause of Epilepsy - as it is quite clear no one else does or perhaps better said will not say; or is by the Medical Professions long standing convention of thinking - not allowed to.

Answer: Be pleased to. It would be helpful to consider all of the above has many reasons for being - perhaps the number one reason is to allow a Person to see they are not, or are not going Mad; just because Medical Science says so in order to hide their true lack of knowledge and effective treatments.

It is suggested - Much of illness and in the case of Epilepsy is Inherited and Genetics are implicated.

Let us look first at Inherited and consider - like Father like son or Like Mother like Daughter and of course as a cross over, all being implicated in the inherited factor of illness.

Is it suggested to mean - If Mum or Dad has the disorder then the Child will get it.

Let us accept this point of view and ask - is it really true.

It may well be so, but most certainly not in the manner described above.

Genetics can we really accept illness is Genetic - if this is the case - if a Parent has the disorder then every Child would get it, would they not!

Or is there a better explanation or Genes whilst important and of course necessary in our construction are a use once process - if they were not, surely we would never stop growing.

Or is it better said at our conception our construction Genes are duplicated into a working copy which during the course of our construction and life are in constant flux as depicted by the mass of information that comes at us on a daily bases, via our Body Chemistry.

Causing us to grow to the shape, Height and Body colours (not skin pigmentation) we adopt at say maturity along with the belief systems we run our life by. Likes and dislikes are a good example.

Giving rise or acceptance to the understanding - illness is not at all Genetic, more it is an on-going Process of the Mind.

May we now explore the true cause of Epilepsy?

From an individual point of view it is better this is accepted as a Guide only and not a definitive individual explanation - as each and every one of us is created as a Unique individual; thus, our illness expression from initial trauma, is unique.

First we must go back many generations, this may give rise to a demonstration illness is after all Genetic - not so - it is however and on-going process of the Mind.

Again in any Family - there is no definitive starting point; however, the process always starts with Fear.

Moreover cannot be seen in a Linear (time-line) way (affecting everyone in the same way at the same time in their life) as the Fear has as many pathways - as there are People affected.

Fear of say Spiders, Mice or Flying in Airplanes is not Fear - these are all symptoms of Fear.

Let us explore Fear:

An external event or incident not expected or from and unexpected Person or - Say accident or incident to which an affected Person (Child born or in the womb) is unable to make sense of the mass of information and store it safely and securely for later retrieval and life activities.

Instead, the Mind stores negative-traumatic information, still safely but only as a traumatic memory or non-memory - which will negatively control a Person for the rest of their days.

To demonstrate a time-line may we create two unnamed individuals - who from creation are on a course to somehow meet later in life.

May we accept one or both of them are in Fear as described above.

One way of describing this Fear is if a Child (just one of our two) is snatched or forcibly taken in some manner - from Mother and Father at Birth.

Only the Parents of the Children affected are truly aware or gather support for how they feel and are affected for the remainder of their life - always seeking something, but never sure just what.

No one in real terms accepts the Child is affected - which in many ways is made worse if the Child is settled in a very loving and truly nurturing family unit.

Even if the Child does not remember; the memory will be securely embedded in their Mind and will show later as - external life style activities, preferences or illness.

One of these preferences - although the Child now grown up and even an expectant Parent, waiting to bring another Child into this world for their personal happiness and comfort - now with our make believe Children as a couple, one born without Fear, the other as our explanation and we have prospective Parents with different life style preferences and belief systems.

Just one of these preferences or beliefs is sufficient to create not only what is considered as Genetic Illness but all illness in general, including Epilepsy.

And both Parents - although not in the slightest to be considered Guilty; are now implicit and to a greater or lesser degree complicit, in the creation of their Childs illness.

In simple terms - individually they will have a way of bringing their Children up with...

"I will not let my Children grow up to suffer in the same manner as I."

On the face of it - this is a very loving Parent wanting better for their Child...

...And who dare argue this.

The reality could not be further from the truth.

It is now helpful to consider Genetics and Illness as a cascade - where in reality illness is the future Evolutionary change that is long accepted to be; Genetic.

From the very first time - a Child as in our discussion many generations earlier, was placed in Fear the entire body chemistry was altered in keeping with the thoughts embedded in the Mind. "I will not let my Children grow up to suffer in the same manner as I."

Now change this to a Psychotic Controlling activity on behalf of a grown up Child (Adult Parent,) thus the Child of this seemingly life style activity is controlled by Fear.

Moreover - the Adult Child is now controlled in a more severe manner.

This controlling activity although not seen or recognised by the Parents or indeed onlookers is passed down the Family chain as Traditional Values for a susceptible Child any Fear created in the Womb at Birth or further traumatic incidents post Birth will only increase or embed the Fear deeper into the Mind, always remaining, dormant yet highly active.

Now we have a Child or our Two make believe subjects growing up with their body chemistry, both toxic and caustic by the generations of imposed Fear - that into turn reacts through the Brain into the entire body causing a Chemical/Electrical activity.

First, the Brain finds this as an irritant thus fires inappropriately and as the chemistry purveys through the Body selecting different areas relative to the Minds interpretation of the Fear imposed by loving Parents.

Leaving a Child/Adult as the Ancient Greeks suggested with...

...Epilepsy to seize, possess, or afflict"

Question: Knowing how Talking Cures views Medical Science, may I ask - are there any points in all of this one could revisit in a somewhat compact manner?

Answer: Yes, there are a few we could have covered in more detail - however as you have suggested, may be better.

Question: Perhaps; "no immediate underlying cause," if we take this whether in context or not to mean in consideration of - "Brain injury," "Stroke," Brain Tumour and Substance use." disorders.

Answer: Surely, it does not take a degree in Medical Science to see with the exception of Brain Injury and if one takes out of the discussion Accident or Impact Incident these are all symptoms - meaning even if Medical Science does not or will not accept the Mind as the cause, it cannot and must not be dismissed by. "No immediate underlying cause.

Question: Just because no one with a Medical Degree is allowed to suggest - it is a Process of the Mind? "Ruling out other conditions." What does this phrase suggest?

Answer: One would think at least one Person would know - after all this disorder has been around for Four Thousand Years, when a Person is having a seizure.

Based on we all have a Medical Record history which should have given much in the way of specialised knowledge regarding a Persons on-going health concerns.

Question: "Automatisms may occur, which are non-consciously-generated activities and mostly simple repetitive movements like smacking of the lips or more complex activities such as attempts to pick something up."

Answer: Is it really too much to ask Medical Science to accept - when. "Non Consciously generated activities" are present, this activity cannot be a Biological demonstration - thus the Mind must be creating this and Lip Smacking and Attempts to pick something up, confirm so.

Question: Auras that include sensory, visual, hearing, smell, psychic, autonomic and motor phenomena.

Answer: How sad in the year 2016 Medical Science is so reliant on terminology from parapsychology and spiritual practice - where an Aura is a supposed field of subtle, luminous radiation surrounding a Person or object like the halo or aureola in often termed a blue light or even ectoplasm.

Ectoplasm - from the Greek ektos, meaning, "outside" and plasma, meaning, "something formed or moulded" is a term coined by Charles Richet to denote a substance or spiritual energy, "exteriorized" by physical mediums. Ectoplasm is said to be associated with the formation of spirits.

Whether in reality Auras exist is of no concern, for if a Doctor uses them to explain away a seizure; the Mind in a skipped Heartbeat - will dismiss everything a Doctor says or does.

And not tell anyone it has done so - it will however show much later as new and even more mysterious symptoms.

If we are to use words as. Aura; is it a number of chemicals, thus best we ask - just what are they or can they be explained in more plausible ways.

Of course for more years that I am able to remember Medical Science has counted the different body chemicals and that many or all of them generate electrical impulses through the Brain and Body, yet at the same time failed to accept or recognise they are all from the Minds activity.

Although one has to consider the possibility the exact numbers (some 2000) are still unknown and more importantly the cascading effects of say just one of them on all the rest - is a mathematical impossibility.

To comprehend the numbers of chemicals in the body one must look at Pyramid Selling;

One Person attracts two People to sell a product; in turn these two attract two each and then four each and then eight each - it is easy to comprehend the numbers in one accepts; the Body made up of up. around one trillion cells all from one cell, in some forty-nine steps, if my maths are correct.

Thus, it must be certain if a Persons Mind set is such, then the chemical composition of the Body - could give rise for a sensitive Person to observe the Body appearing to light up. 

Hence an Aura may well appear around the Person, nothing mystical in that. How does one think one Person's is attracted to another.

Moreover, this chemical activity in the body - is at all times perfectly balanced by the Mind and with prevailing circumstances demonstrates in the Body as Epileptic Seizures and abnormal cortical nerve cell activity in the Brain.

Question: where making the diagnosis involves determining - if any other causes of seizures are present such as: alcohol withdrawal or electrolyte problems and frequency of the underlying causes?

Answer: Sigh - when the Medical Profession has to stoop this low it surely is demonstrating it knows nothing.

Alcohol withdrawal can only present in two forms.

1. As a result of a management program somewhat enforced on a Person.

2. As a result of a Person passing out and or sleeping off the effects.

Surely as the cause of a Person having to result to excessive alcohol consumption is not known and an effective treatment program - leaving a Person following a successful treatment program able to have a drink or even get drunk from time to time, is not in the scientific program.

Then it does not or should not take a degree in Medical Science to understand; if Fear as the cause prevails, leading a Person to experience Seizures, then Alcohol consumption is related to the Fear and this is the mysterious underlying cause.

Question: A Jerking activity may start in a specific muscle group and spread to surrounding muscle groups in which case it is known as a Jacksonian march.

Answer: It constantly amazes me why anyone let alone Medical Science could consider it the correct thing to name an illness after a Person, although it appears the practice is not so prevalent today.

Question: What is a “Jacksonian” seizure?

Answer: Jacksonian march, also called Jacksonian seizure, is one kind of a simple partial seizure.

1: “Simple” in this context means Patients do not lose awareness.

2. Partial means that abnormal neuron firing only occurs in part of the Brain and, accordingly, abnormal movement or sensation is limited to only part of the Body.

3. The characteristic features of Jacksonian March are;

A: it only occurs on one side of the body.

B: it progresses in a predictable pattern from twitching or a tingling sensation or weakness in a finger, a big toe or the corner of the mouth, then "marches" over a few seconds to the entire hand, foot or facial muscles.

Question: Is it a new seizure type?

Answer: No, it is not. It is a subtype of partial seizures.

It was described in 1870 by John Hughling Jackson, an English neurologist.

Jackson considered that parts of the Body were represented in discrete parts of the nervous system including both sensory and motor systems.

His theory was later confirmed by other neurologists demonstrating the electrical excitability in a certain part of dog’s brain, the area called motor cortex.

Interestingly, Jackson’s wife Elizabeth Dade Jackson had Jacksonian focal seizure before she died of cerebral venous thrombosis in 1876.

Question: What are other features in Jacksonian March?

Answer: First it is clear Jackson was wrong in his guesswork that Jacksonian March seizures are generally brief and relatively mild. However on the death of his wife he marched into the history books.

They are episodic, come and go.

There is no confusion afterwards.

Sometimes Patients may not even notice them.

Some Patients may also have a phenomenon called “automatism,” such as compulsively licking the lips, fumbling with clothing, or other rhythmic finger movements.

Others may experience head turning, eye movement, muscle cramping, numbness, tingling, and a crawling sensation over the skin.

Hallucinations can occur too, which can be visual or auditory, meaning Patients may see or hear things - that are not there.

Question: What if any value are Jacksons' findings today?

Answer: For me - whilst remembering it is 1870/6 we are talking about, the interesting part is although being a renowned Neurologist - not only did his wife have and indeed died of his Jacksons March - he could not do anything about it in Six Years.

Leaving me no option but to question. "Did," she really have it or did he in some manner create it - to enhance his career.

We all know the fictitious story of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde; we also know sometimes truth is stranger than fiction.

Question: There are six main types of generalized seizures: tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, myoclonic, absence and atonic seizures? Is there a value in all these names?

Answer: And in late 2015 - still the cause is not known and there are no cures. Thus in real terms NO Value.

Question: Failure of the Blood-Brain barrier may also be a causal mechanism as it would allow substances in the Blood to enter the Brain.

Answer: The Blood-Brain barrier is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the Brain extracellular fluid in the central nervous system And has in an extremely high electrical resistivity.

The Blood-Brain barrier allows the passage of water, some gases and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion, as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose, amino acids and specific proteins that are crucial to neural function.

On the other hand, the Blood-Brain barrier may prevent the entry of lipophilic, potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein.

Astrocytes are necessary to create the Blood-Brain barrier.

Endothelial cells restrict the diffusion of microscopic objects (e.g., bacteria) and large or hydrophilic molecules into the cerebrospinal fluid, while allowing the diffusion of small hydrophobic molecules (O2, CO2, hormones.)

There is no contest in the acceptance - this is a demonstration of very eloquent findings on behalf of Medical Science.

The question is, what is its true worth in understanding Seizures if only a couple of body chemicals are implicated and more importantly chemically adjusting these few is a mathematical nightmare as well as a Biological impossibility as the evidence bases of successfully curing Epileptic Seizures - in late 2015 is in real terms; no better than in Jacksons time of 1870/6 and indeed some 2000 years BC.

Question: What do they mean by. "Substances?" Not a random event and Seizures are often brought on by factors, such as lack of sleep, stress or flickering light - among others?

Answer: Some examples include mood changes, sleepiness, or an unsteadiness of gait.

If I were a Doctor having to work within the structure of Medical Science I would perhaps as are so many of our dedicated front line clinicians - be at the end of my tether.

Because as an individual including Family members - we all at some time would experience the above list and would have a knowing, if only deep in our Mind the Family member is having; Emotional Problems not Biological.

And the combination of the two situations is destroying my ability to be a good Doctor.

Question: Substances? was the question?

Answer: The reality is the question is confusing in itself... There is a propensity to accept or even believe these substances are self-inflicted by way of some dietary consumption.

This cannot possibly be the truth as everything we consume is instructed by our Mind - based on our entire body chemistry and chemical balance from conception.

Even if we vehemently, argue from a so-called conscious Mind point of view - "I like this it is my favourite," can only be on instructions of the Subconscious Mind in pursuit of maintaining a chemical balance.

Therefore, the consideration must be if Medical Science is able to detect. "Substances, in the Body it cannot name or does not know the function of - they must be the Body's own chemistry and not any form of invader or antigen. 

Question: Certain medications have side effects that are not related to dose such as rashes, liver toxicity or suppression of the bone marrow?

Answer: Up to a quarter of People stop treatment due to adverse effects.

Some medications are associated with Birth defects when used in pregnancy, an option for People with partial seizures - that remain a problem despite other treatments.

These other treatments include at least a trial of two or three medications.

Question: Do I have to repeat the question?

Answer: Not related to dose can surely only confirm. "We do not know what we are talking about."

Question: The goal of surgery is total control of seizures and this may be achieved in 60-70% of cases?

Answer: Common procedures include cutting out the hippocampus via an anterior temporal lobe resection, removal of Tumour's and removing parts of the neocortex.

Some procedures such as a corpus callosotomy are attempted in an effort to decrease the number of seizures rather than cure the condition.

Whilst it is right and proper we support out dedicated surgeons when they operate on such delicate areas of the body - is not right and proper we question the true validity if but only from history where Lobotomy and Electrical Convulsive Therapy never really proved their worth based on, then, as now, the true cause of Mental illness is so poorly understood.

Question: What about side effects?

Answer: Side effects include stomach and intestinal problems in 30% and there are long term concerns of Heart disease.

Question: Is there a perceived value from Scientific Diets for Epilepsy.

Answer: Only about 10% stay on diet for a few years due to issues of effectiveness and tolerability. However Less radical diets are easier to tolerate and may be effective.

Question: Why is it Medical Science says. "It is unclear why this diet works?"

Answer: Based on Medical Practitioners - only work from Scientifically Proven Facts and do not allow storytelling, it would be exciting to see a Patient Health care record; from say the first Seizure through to the requirement of special scientific dietary control that appeared to work, over a period of say Ten Years.

From this - it may be possible, we could see first, the diet did not work as suggested, but then as the records would almost certainly show, an increase of different symptoms.

From this - an educated Person would be able to see if one understood Body Chemistry; how from Mind instructions it entered the Body via the Brain activity. - The Mind via the entire Body Chemistry was at work.

Question: There is a lot of information for a Person let alone a dedicated Doctor to comprehend - are you able to simplify the process from cause to effect of Epileptic Seizures?

Answer: Yes, as this is a complex subject with many facets; perhaps for a change we explain this disorder from creation to recurring seizures in a numbered list order.

Please remember this cannot and must not be seen as a one size suits all time line - as we are all individuals.

In addition - "Some" of these responses are at the time of trauma; instantly created or have crossovers, meaning slightly different outcomes.

1. Trauma (S) - emotional or physical, accident or impact incident included.

2. Subconscious Mind using the Eyes, Ears and Touch through the interchange mechanism (often referred to as Conscious Mind) seeks to collate-make sense of the trauma(s.)

3. Subconscious Mind in order to sustain the negative driving force or make sense (At that time) of the information input, creates a LIFETIME unbreakable Rule.

With a resolution (get out of illness) clause - if a satisfactory understanding of the Traumas is received, a Person can return to their original - life course.

4. A secure part of this Rule is - "Protection," at all costs - to ensure the same Traumas do not happen again.

5. Whatever power the Rule is set to - the initial reaction/outcome of the Protection is FEAR.

Set at a value relevant to the initial trauma and the Minds perception of the (negative) value of the Trauma(s.)

6. Fear is now a process of the Mind that creates within the Body a chemical balance of every body-chemical and instructs the Brain to distribute the chemicals throughout the entire Body.

7. As the chemicals circulate every cell in the body - in very simple terms they achieve two outcomes.

A. As the Fear via the initial rule never changes; the Immune system responds and in turn creates Inflammation - to a greater or lesser degree in every cell in the Body - no exceptions.

B. When and now, delivered on a permanent bases - the Chemicals reach the Brain, they become an exciter, to which the Mind has no option but responded to, in an unstoppable manner.

8. The Brain now excited by the chemicals reports to the Mind; "Something is wrong." The Mind, - as Creativity is the Brakes on Madness, responds by altering its thinking and thus the direction the Person's life should have taken - to one that is unsustainable.

If this process is within the womb the Person's life will be meaningless or have no real purpose in Life of their-own purposeful making.

Always seeking something - but not knowing what.

9. Constantly as a result of unresolved and unresolvable Fear, the Mind will seek to ensure the Body is in balance and it will do just that by changing a Persons desires, life style, preferences, diet and activities.

10. These life style preferences will be seen by the subconscious Mind as a form of management - to which it will counterbalance with Body Chemical and Electrical alterations.

11. These Chemical and Electrical activities will demonstrate rather like the patterns in the sky a Storm creates of Lightning, - no one, or very few People know where the lightning strike hits - as Mind/Brain/ Body irregularities, called, in order to relieve Anxiety of clinicians and onlookers - Epileptic Seizures.

Question: Does item 11 relate to this copied from an earlier answer? "This may occur due to changes in ion channels or inhibitory neurons - not functioning properly."

Answer: Yes indeed and well observed.

Perhaps is the biggest cause of Medical Science inability to see in all illness, let alone Epilepsy, is when there is Chemical-Electrical activity in the Brain to cause a seizure...

- ...the Mind is not trying to do something; it is trying to stop something.

Question: Is it fair to say all of this writing could have been summed up in that one small sentence?

Answer: That is the reason for being - thus the true cause of all illness...

...The Mind is not trying to do something wrong; it is trying to gather understanding in order to put right - something that is terribly wrong.

Whilst it must be recognised, the framework for this paper is in the public domain and credit given to the authors;

Peter Smith Talking Cures asserts the right to be recognised as author and Intellectual ©Copyright holder of his contribution to this document Dated 17th November 2015.

Thus, this document is free to use as an education or Patient led assistance in its entirety.

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