Epilepsy Explained Explored Understood.
Body (framework) of Discussion - Courtesy of Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia
Epilepsy (from Ancient Greek: "to seize, possess, or afflict"
If in reading this paper my writing appears to be like a foreign language or even rambling...
Consider reading this paper not as a book - take some time to comprehend the contents - where I would like to think and feel sure it will make sense?
So often, we read or hear in detail. "What" about an illness - but rarely if ever does anyone take the time to truly explain, "Why," this paper is designed to answer many of the questions - we are so often left with.
Where many times with illness we have the questions and no answers - or the answers and not the questions.
If I have unwittingly left anything out or not answered fully, please, email me (at the end of this page) and I will include it in the Paper at the earliest opportunity.
Please include a copy and paste if possible of the item that is not clear.
Did we not all struggle as a Child to learn many things - now, through the experience of life we are extremely competent at.
No apology if offered if discussions are repeated within this paper - the understanding for this, is nothing is more repeating than medical science itself about illness and illness that is there every day of one's life and - despite treatments, does not get better or have a satisfactory scientific explanation/understanding.
The first thing in the process of answering this is, for any one suffering...
- "New understandings are required about illness..."
...as it appears - the existing education is the same worldwide? Non-existent.
From Talking Cures point of view and therapeutic practice - names of illness especially Medically Diagnosed recognised and scientifically proven, are of no real value in the understanding and treatment of any illness - the only Name we should use or symptom we may label is...
"A Person is unable to achieve a Healthy and satisfactory lifestyle.”
Question: What is Epilepsy?
Answer: Epilepsy is recognised by the medical profession as a group of neurological diseases characterized by Epileptic Seizures.
Question: Ok I asked for that? Tells me nicely. "What," have to wonder, if it really, or why did it take - the noble medical profession so long to say just that; moreover, does it really answer my question?
Answer: You are getting too smart. Epileptic Seizures are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable - to long periods of vigorous shaking.
Question: Better, may we start out how we mean to carry on? Have you ever knowingly treated a Person with Epilepsy?
Answer: From the very beginning of my therapeutic career, (July 1983) I specialised in treating People with multiple long-term no known cause and no known cure symptoms of Mind and Body - thus it was never in my therapeutic remit to request of a Person to detail diagnosed symptoms.
Question: Why is that?
Answer: Simply I never accepted yet always considered - when a Person with their Doctor/specialist in possession of all the Scientific knowledge, who with the latest and best Scientifically Proven Treatments was not able to deal with all of the Person's presenting symptoms under the one treatment modality and as a result create a cure or even offer long-term good management; was placed in a position of attending my surgery.
Then it was reasonable to consider - the Medical Profession did not know very much and their knowledge, would not be conducive to a satisfactory outcome.
Question: Does that now allow you to answer my first question?
Answer: Yes just once - way back in early 1984 a Mother brought her Seventeen year old Daughter to me for assistance - and Mother did all the talking - telling me the girl had severe seizures as well as her entire body shook from head to toe.
Question: Are you suggesting there was a message you should have seen - but did not?
Answer: Yes, this is true. Without realising at the time, the activity of the Mother educated me into the now long-term understanding; Parents cause all illness and was the seedbed for my 2015 paper on Munchausen's Syndrome. Munchausens Syndrome
Question: What was the outcome?
Answer: Remembering at the time I used Hypnotherapy (not as a management tool) as a treatment and this was 1983.
In a short space of time the girls seizures were a thing of the past and the body shaking was seriously minimised and I had weaned her of the medication - not in my remit for many years now.
At the time Multiple Sclerosis was rather like a new kid on the block - with the Girls presenting symptoms lessened I became aware of Mother's power over her and for the very first and last time I took a Parent into my confidence and requested. "For a short period of time Not under any circumstances; was she to go to the Doctors." "Why" Mother demanded - of course, I was obligated to answer. "A Doctor at this time would in pursuit of gaining the high ground of knowing something, would want to treat the now diagnosed Multiple Sclerosis.
Quicker than the speed of light Mother whisked her to the Doctors and demanded she be diagnosed with MS - of course Doctor willingly obliged.
There ended the Daughters right to live an improved life.
Some years passed Mother and Father passed away the Girl married, never had another seizure, although was later confined in the main to a wheelchair, yet remained in good spirits.
This was confirmed on a chance meeting some five years ago (2010.)
Question: You talk and even write about these things with what appears to be - consummate ease?
Answer: Yes more so today - always I have been of the professional opinion. "If one cannot be challenged on what professes, then is what one professes worthy of the challenge and more important; if one cannot or will not be challenged, what is one hiding...
...Other than a seriously damaged ego - or is it just a lack of knowledge and therapeutic ability.
Question: Please explain this for me? "In Epilepsy, seizures tend to recur and have no immediate underlying cause while seizures that occur due to a specific cause are not deemed to represent epilepsy." What is it saying or does it mean?
Answer: Nothing - it is Medical Science repeating Nonsense.
Question: Surely, for you to be so Verbally Sharp - there must be more?
Answer: Yes, "no immediate underlying cause," says it all.
As the cause of most cases of Epilepsy is unknown, although some People develop Epilepsy as the result of brain injury, stroke, brain tumour and substance use disorders.
Question: Would the list above be deemed as - underlying cause?
Answer: The definition of underlying refers to something lying beneath or the basic or root cause of something. Or in medical terminology, "sub-clinical," working towards; "we do not know." So; with perhaps the exclusion of Brain Injury (impact) yes they are all symptoms - thus an underlying cause each having their own cause, vested within the Mind and its negative thought processes - memories.
Question: How would you view this what appears to be; confusing science from confused scientists?
Answer: Dormant - yet as active as though diagnosable or recognisable.
Question: What about the cause - would you know what that is?
Answer: Without question - although not the definitive or individual cause.
Question: Why not the definitive cause?
Answer: This is as unique as a Person's fingerprint, although the cause is the same for every illness. No exceptions.
Question: What is the cause for every illness?
Answer: In simple terms - "Fear" as a negative input; not of an acceptable nature to the Child or recipient of the imposed Fear.
Which in turn created Anxiety that altered permanently, the entire Body Chemical and Electrical activity from the Mind to the Brain and on into the Body, which at the same time created a lifetime of inadequacy - unable to cope with life's demands, tiredness unrelieved by sleep or rest and mysterious, no known cause and no known cure symptoms.
Requiring a release and in this case Epilepsy - being the end product result.
Question: Does Genetics play a part in Epileptic Seizures?
Answer: It is of a scientific opinion - Genetic mutations are linked to a small proportion of the disease.
Question: Disease? - is Epilepsy really a Disease?
Answer: Although the Medical Science suggests - Epileptic Seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell activity in the Brain.
Where the diagnosis typically involves ruling out other conditions that might cause similar symptoms - such as fainting.
Additionally, where making the diagnosis involves determining - if any other cause of seizures is present, such as alcohol withdrawal or electrolyte problems.
To ensure this disorder is kept a biological in cause, it has to be labelled as a Disease - if not, it is too close for comfort as a Mind disorder - Rather than the Brain.
Question: What is an Electrolyte Problem?
Answer: There is much said about this Biological activity within the Body and Brain but not so much the Mind.
For the Body to naturally function - the entire Body Chemistry and the resulting Electrical Stimulus for specific muscular activity, has to be in accordance with the desires of the Mind; based on the collective memories - stored within and perfectly balanced at all times and under all prevailing circumstances.
Therefore an Electrolyte Problem or cortical nerve cell activity in the Brain must be part of all life activity and every illness or only within the confines of Medical Science - not knowing the cause of life or illness.
Question: How is Epilepsy diagnosed?
Answer: This may be done by imaging the Brain and performing blood tests.
Epilepsy can often be confirmed with an electroencephalogram (EEG) but a normal test does not rule out the condition.
Question: If Epilepsy is a Disease? Can it be "Cured?"
Answer: Seizures are controllable with medication - in about 70% of cases.
In those whose seizures do not respond to medication, then surgery, neurostimulation or dietary changes may be considered.
Question: So do I have to answer the question myself? With "No, it cannot be medically cured," only managed and then one has to in part - self-manage?
Answer: Sometimes this is the only acceptable way. However - Let us not kid ourselves, that for the first time in history Medical Science has actually created a cure, for a disease.
Question: With this is mind; is there a suggestion this mysterious disorder as to its cause, is of life-long duration?
Answer: Not all cases of Epilepsy are lifelong and some People improve to the point that treatment is no longer required.
Question: Is there at least from yourself - a suggestion as to why this is?
Answer: Whilst we do not have a case history to work from - it would seem reasonable to consider the Mind realised this disorder was not going to gather the understanding sought - so simply created another one.
Question: Is this a demonstration of what you term as - Substitution?
Answer: Certainly is. Even if a medication is not applied - the Mind is clever enough to swop one disorder for another, to gather the necessary understanding.
Question: What is this understanding for?
Answer: All illness is created by the Mind and has one reason for being - to gain understanding and resolution of the Traumas that initially placed a Person (Child) in Fear - that over a period of time resulted in an illness or many illnesses.
Question: Is there Scientific Data that demonstrates the percentage of the population who are affected?
Answer: It is reported - About 1% of People worldwide (65 million) have Epilepsy and nearly 80% of cases occur in developing countries.
That In 2013 resulted in 116,000 deaths up from 111,000 deaths in 1990.
Question: Whilst on the face of it - the rise in number appears to indicate Medical Science is better at managing the disorder? Could there be other reasons?
Answer: Without access to the graph that demonstrates the data - it is difficult but not impossible to think of a response...
...My guess would be the change came from around and post 2002!
Answer: Sometime from around the year 2000 an event changed the way the population of the world viewed itself...
...Yet created more questions than there were answers and answers with no questions.
Question: Does the Scientific Data suggest this disorder is age related?
Answer: There is it appears from certain Medical wisdom - Epilepsy becomes more common as People age and others somewhat contradict with; "it happens in all ages, races and social classes with Epilepsy most commonly diagnosed in Children and People over Sixty Five.
Confirmed by; In the developed world, onset of new cases occurs most frequently in infants and the elderly; in the developing world - this is in older children and young adults, due to differences in the frequency of the underlying causes.
About 5–10% of all People will have an unprovoked seizure by the age of 80 and the chance of experiencing a second seizure is between 40 and 50%.
Question: What does the last comment indicate?
Answer: The cause of the first seizure is not known and watchful waiting for the next, so we can prescribe a medication.
Question: Are there any other consequences following having a seizure?
Answer: In many areas of the world those with Epilepsy either have restrictions placed on their ability to drive or are not permitted to drive, but most are able to return to driving after a period of time without seizures.
Question: May we explore the signs and symptoms?
Answer: Yes of course - I hope you have no objection; as I am not familiar with the research - I have had a peek ahead at this Scientific Paper provided by Wikipedia, to see what I am in for.
Question: Of course - is that a procedure you always adopt?
Answer: Working on the understanding - if I do not know the answer then there is something wrong with my thinking and knowledge.
Thus I only work on the last instruction from a Person I am working with, it seems fitting I do the same with any questions posed to me - this way I am not prone to make mistakes or activate a negative response from the Person's Subconscious Mind.
Question: May we return to my question?
Answer: It appears to be or the suggestion is - A bite to the tip of the tongue due to a seizure, is an early recognition sign.
Question: From this early sign? What is the progression and how does Medical Science view this disorder?
Answer: It is said - Epilepsy is characterized by a long-term risk of recurrent seizures.
Seizures may present in several ways depending on the part of the Brain involved and the Person's age.
Question: What does this tell us so far?
Answer: It would seem reasonable to consider from the Scientific Data; although Seizures have been recognised since ancient Greek times - is Still Watchful waiting, to see what emerges that Medical Science can make sense of and how they can ensure this is only of biological creation, appears to be the order of the day.
Question: May we explore Seizures in order to confirm or deny your viewpoint?
Answer: Essential that we do - must not let anything or anyone - NOT EVEN ME, stand in the way of better understanding of this disorder - after all, it is nearly 2016.
The most common type (60%) of seizures are convulsive.
Of these, one-third, begin - as generalized seizures from the start, affecting both hemispheres of the Brain.
Two-thirds begin as partial seizures, which affect one hemisphere of the Brain - that may then progress to generalized seizures.
The remaining 40% of seizures are non-convulsive.
An example of this type is the absence seizure, which presents as a decreased level of consciousness and usually lasts about 10 seconds.
Partial seizures are often preceded by certain experiences, known as Auras.
They include sensory, visual, hearing, or smell, psychic, autonomic and motor phenomena.
A Jerking activity may start in a specific muscle group and spread to surrounding muscle groups in which case it is known as a Jacksonian march.
Automatisms may occur, which are non-consciously-generated activities and mostly simple repetitive movements like smacking of the lips or more complex activities such as attempts to pick something up.
There are six main types of generalized seizures: tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, myoclonic, absence and atonic seizures.
They all involve loss of consciousness and typically happen without warning.
Tonic-clonic seizures occur with a contraction of the limbs followed by their extension.
The Tonic Phase - Arching of the back, which lasts 10-30 seconds.
Clonic Phase - A cry may be heard due to contraction of the chest muscles, followed by a shaking of the limbs in unison.
Tonic seizures produce constant contractions of the muscles.
A Person often turns blue as breathing is stopped.
In clonic seizures there is shaking of the limbs in unison.
After the shaking has stopped it may take 10–30 minutes for the Person to return to normal; this period is called the "postictal state" or "postictal phase."
Loss of bowel or bladder control may occur during a seizure.
The tongue may be bitten at either the tip or on the sides during a seizure.
In tonic-clonic seizure, bites to the sides of the inside of the cheeks are more common.
Tongue bites are also relatively common in psychogenic - having a psychological origin or cause rather than a physical one - non-Epileptic seizures.
Myoclonic seizures involve spasms of muscles in either a few areas or all over.
Absence seizures can be subtle with only a slight turn of the head or eye blinking.
The Person does not fall over and returns to normal - immediately it ends.
Atonic seizures involve the loss of muscle activity for greater than one second.
This typically occurs on both sides of the Body.
About 6% of those with Epilepsy have seizures that are often triggered by specific events and are known as reflex seizures.
Those with reflex Epilepsy have seizures that are only triggered by specific stimuli.
Common triggers include flashing lights and sudden noises.
In certain types of Epilepsy, seizures happen more often during sleep and in other types they occur almost only when sleeping.
Question: Why is it Medical Science is able to recognise psychogenic - thus having a psychological origin or cause rather than a physical one? Yet not recognise the Mind is at work here?
Answer: The Mind and its thoughts are not treatable with Medications, thus the only profit to be had is for Psychologists or Psychiatrists not General practitioners or Surgeons.
Question: Comprehensive - but what does all this tell us?
Answer: I have extracted certain points of interest and made them questions and answers:
Question: "Seizures are convulsive?"
Answers: Nice observation - but what does it demonstrate.
Question: "Generalized seizures affecting both hemispheres of the Brain?"
Answer: Ok but WHY.
Question: "Two-thirds begin as partial seizures in one hemisphere of the Brain which may then progress to generalized seizures?"
Answer: But WHY.
Question: "Seizures are non-convulsive?"
Answer: But WHY.
Question: "An example of this type is the absence seizure?"
Answer: Patience is a virtue - the use of the word. "Absence," demonstrates how little Medical Science knows or perhaps better said, desires to know.
Question: "Partial seizures are often preceded by certain experiences, known as Auras?"
Answer: True to form - if Medical Science does not know, a change of name, "Auras" will securely hide the Scientific FACT.
Question: "They include sensory, visual, hearing, smell, psychic, autonomic and motor phenomena?"
Answer: However it is the Brain affected in this process - not the Mind processing information and delivering instructions to the Body via the Brain for daily activities.
Question: "A Jerking activity known as a Jacksonian march?"
Answer: Let us give Epilepsy a really good name - that will make us sound as though we know what we are talking about and are important.
Question: "Automatisms may occur, which are non-consciously-generated activities?"
Answer: So if they are not Consciously generated activities and the conscious is Brain Mapped - where does the instruction for the so-called, "Automatisms" come from.
Question: And mostly simple repetitive movements like smacking of the lips or more complex activities such as attempts to pick something up?"
Answer: When such times as medical science is able to answer this simple question - then it will truly have become Scientific.
Question: "There are six main types of generalized seizures: tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, myoclonic, absence and atonic seizures?"
Answer: These are to relieve the anxiety of the medical profession of not knowing what caused the earlier seizure and never for the Patient at all - or simply for Mindless medics - Creativity as the Brakes on Madness.
For if, they did not create a new name they would go mad or not be paid for their failure.
Question: "They all involve loss of consciousness and typically happen without warning?"
Answer: But what and in near the end of 2016 if anything Medical Profession are you going to do about it - other than watchful waiting.
Question: "Tonic-clonic seizures occur with a contraction of the limbs followed by their extension?
Answer: Nice observation anyone would be able to see - but "WHY!"
Question: "The Tonic Phase Clonic Phase Tonic seizures produce constant contractions of the muscles?"
Answer: But "WHY."
Question: "A Person often turns blue as breathing is stopped?"
Answer: But "WHY." What is the cause.
Question: "In clonic seizures there is shaking of the limbs in unison?"
Answer: But "WHY." What is the cause.
Question: After the shaking has stopped - this period is called the "Postictal state?"
Question: What is the "Postical State?"
Answer: Perhaps best seen as a poor excuse for, "we do not know," but we are not letting on.
The Postictal State is the altered state of consciousness after an Epileptic Seizure.
It usually lasts between 5 and 30 minutes, but sometimes longer.
In the case of larger or more severe seizures is characterized by drowsiness, confusion, nausea, hypertension, headache or migraine and other disorienting symptoms.
And is nothing to do with the Mind "IS IT."
Question: What then is the "Postictal Phase?"
Answer: Perhaps best seen as a posh excuse for, "we do not know," but we are not letting on.
Postictal Phase of a seizure...
A seizure has three distinct phases: Aura, Ictus and Postictal State.
The first phase involves alterations in smell, taste, visual perception, hearing and emotional state.
This is known as an aura, which is actually a small partial seizure that is often followed by a larger event.
The seizure is known as ictus.
There are two major types of seizure: partial and generalized.
What happens to the Person during the seizure depends on where in the Brain the disruption of neural activity occurs.
Question: What is a specific stimuli?
Answer: An excuse for we do not know - flashing lights is a good example.
Question: May we please summarise these questions and answers?
the paper they are written on.
Question: Earlier it was said - "A Person often turns blue as breathing is stopped?" Why do you think this is?
Answer: First I must say in general I do not do, "thinking," either I know and say so, or find out if I do not.
There are many ways the Mind is able to demonstrate Fear, perhaps the most significant is in the Chest affecting in the main or as a front line - the Heart and the way it exchanges deoxygenated for oxygenated blood with the Lungs and the Lungs and the ability to excrete waste from the deepest areas of the Lungs, progressively causing the inability to oxygenate blood for delivery to the Heart and the rest of the Body, including the Brain.
Thus the greater degree of Fear the greater restriction the less oxygenated blood leading to either a blue hue of the Body or even blackout and ultimately death.
Question: Could not have been clearer than that? Can we now explore this situation in some more detail?
Answer: Yes of course - the subject is very large and we must be thankful to those who have given us the framework that enables this exploration and different explanations.
Loss of bowel or bladder control may occur during a seizure.
The tongue may be bitten at either the tip or on the sides during a seizure.
In tonic-clonic seizure, bites to the sides of the inside of the cheeks are more common.
Tongue bites are also relatively common in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures Myoclonic seizures involve spasms of muscles in either - a few areas or all over.
Absence seizures can be subtle with only a slight turn of the head or eye blinking.
The Person does not fall over although Atonic seizures involve the loss of muscle activity.
This typically occurs on both sides of the Body.
Often triggered by specific events and are known as reflex seizures.
Those with reflex Epilepsy have seizures that are only triggered by specific stimuli.
Common triggers include flashing lights and sudden noises.
In certain types of Epilepsy, seizures happen more often during sleep and in other types they occur - almost only when sleeping.
Question: When, "a few areas or all over" are mentioned - what is the meaning behind this and it is possible for a medication to treat this.
Answer: If one does not understand the entire Body Chemistry as one organism, then we have to consider this is no more than an attempt to maintain the upper hand by demonstrating of biological cause or a further admittance of. "We just do not know" and no medication can possible affect every single body cell so affected - before it is switched off - if only but on a temporary bases - by the Mind itself.
Question: Earlier when asked about Specific Stimuli, you replied - may we now explore this a little further?
Answer: When a Person Negatively or constantly reacts to what may be considered and external stimuli it is only the Emotional Phenotype reacting not the Person - therefore it is best we see this as just another symptom of the main causes.
Question: What is the Emotional Phenotype?
Answer: The image we show to ourselves and the world based on our entire store of memories - be they, good, bad. indifferent or memories not in our ability to recall - known as Dormant yet highly active.
Question: What does this tell us, or is there a deeper meaning behind it all?
Answer: Your use of the word. "What" says it all - as that is all the Medical Profession stands for, always. "What," anyone else could observe, never. "Why," "what" in reality everyone - does not want to hear.
Question: May we return to Postictal?
Answer: It is generally accepted. After the active portion of a seizure, there is typically a period of confusion referred to as the postictal period before a normal level of consciousness returns.
It usually lasts 3 to 15 minutes, but may last for hours.
Other common symptoms include feeling tired, headache, difficulty speaking and abnormal behaviour.
Psychosis after a seizure is relatively common, occurring in 6–10% of People.
Often People do not remember - what happened during this time.
Localized weakness, known as Todd's paralysis may also occur, after a partial seizure.
When it occurs, it typically lasts for a few seconds to many minutes - however; rarely may also last for a day or two.
Question: Explanation please and Why does Psychosis occur following a seizure?
Answer: Because of the Scientific Blindness of not knowing the true cause of illness is a process of the Mind and then attempting to treat the illness by biological means.
There are a number of clues contained in this information.
Which without the Medical Profession realising so - it destroys any belief Epilepsy is of Biological Cause:
Confusion, difficulty speaking and abnormal behaviour, Psychosis, not remembering and Todds Paralyses.
Question: How so?
Answer: Confusion is the only emotion from Conception and Birth during the course of our lives - that is of any real value to us.
With abnormal behaviour and the patronising and dismissive word. "Psychosis," clearly demonstrating not much is known - as does. Not Remembering and Epilepsy are Processes of the Mind, not the Brain.
Todd's Paresis, Todd's Paralysis, or Todd's Palsy or Postictal Paresis/Paralysis, "after seizure;" is focal weakness in a part of the Body after a seizure.
This weakness typically affects appendages and is localized to either the left or right side of the Body.
It usually subsides completely within 48 hours.
Todd's Paresis may also affect speech, eye position, gaze, or vision.
For an illness of any description to be named after a Person clearly demonstrates - the findings were for the Named Person and never ever the sufferer or attending Family members.
Question: Where does Psychosocial fit within the remit of Epilepsy?
Answer: Epilepsy can have adverse effects on social and psychological well-being.
These effects may include: social isolation, stigmatization or disability.
They may result in lower educational achievement and worse employment outcomes.
Learning difficulties are common in those with the condition and especially among Children with Epilepsy.
The stigma of Epilepsy can also affect the Families of those with the disorder.
Certain disorders occur more often in People with Epilepsy, depending partly on the Epilepsy syndrome present.
These include Depression, Anxiety disorders and Migraines.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affects three to five times more Children with Epilepsy than Children in the general population.
ADHD and Epilepsy have significant consequences on a Child's behavioural, learning and social development.
Epilepsy is also more common in Children with Autism.
Bottom line - when Psychosocial is used it always demonstrates significant People caused the disorder and will not own up - so have to find a good excuse to blame something, sort of tangible.
Question: Why does ADHD affect so many more Children than Epilepsy?
Answer: First it is essential we recognise ADHD is a symptom which causes nothing, as is Epilepsy only a symptom.
From the point of Trauma - illness is never by chance where it affects the Body or in Medical Science little minds where they say it is.
Question: Educates and tells me nicely about it but not; "WHY?" Are you becoming one of them; "What," is name?
Answer: Good point and no I am not - for I am able to see; all of this amounts to no more than Medical Blindness, with the lack of desire or inability to see with their Minds. - The Brain is instructed by the Mind to perfectly, Laser Aim and affect the Body in keeping with the style of originating Traumas and how the Mind deemed it would gain the understanding required to resolve the traumas.
In addition - It is all Back to front Medical Thinking worse than; what came first - the Chicken or the Egg.
Almost every line is a clear and unambiguous demonstration - the Mind (Front) is most seriously implicated and not at all the Brain (back.)
Question: Point taken? Make we review the so-called causes?
Answer: Epilepsy can have both Genetic and acquired causes, with interaction of these factors in many cases.
Established acquired causes include serious Brain Trauma, Stroke, Tumours and problems in the Brain as a result of a previous infection.
In about 60% of cases - the cause is unknown.
Epilepsies caused by Genetic, Congenital, or developmental conditions are more common among younger People, while Brain Tumour's and Strokes are more likely in older People.
Seizures may also occur as a consequence of other health problems; if they occur right around a specific cause, such as a stroke, head injury, toxic ingestion or metabolic problem, they are known as acute symptomatic seizures and are in the broader classification of seizure-related disorders - rather than Epilepsy itself.
Question: Makes sense?
Answer: No, it is more of that regurgitating medical nonsense, all designed to confuse. Not the same as confusion as an emotive tool.
Question: I see Genetics was mentioned above - where does this fit in?
Answer: Genetics is believed to be involved in the majority of cases, either directly or indirectly.
Some Epilepsies are due to a single Gene defect, 1–2%; most are due to the interaction of multiple Genes and Environmental factors.
Each of the single Gene defects is Rare, with more than 200 in all described.
Most Genes involved affect ion channels, either directly or indirectly.
These include Genes for ion channels themselves, enzymes, GABA and G protein-coupled receptors.
Use of the word "Believed" coupled with "directly or indirectly" clearly describes not much is known and we are saving some for a rainy day when there is a pharmaceutical slow down or stopping of the funding stream.
Question: Even though it is nonsense - does Genetics' figure in identical Twins and Epilepsy?
Answer: In identical twins, if one is affected there is a 50-60% chance the other one will also be affected.
In non-identical twins, the risk is 15%.
These risks are greater in those - with generalized rather than partial seizures.
If both twins are affected, most of the time - 70-90%, they have the same Epileptic Syndrome.
Other close relatives of a Person with Epilepsy have a risk five times that of the general population.
Between 1 and 10% of those with Downs syndrome and 90% of those with Angelman syndrome have Epilepsy.
Question: What is Angelman syndrome?
Answer: A name given as a reward to the Person who discovered it was - A rare congenital (born with) disorder characterized by mental disability and a tendency to jerky movement, caused by the absence of certain genes normally present on the copy of chromosome 15 - inherited from the Mother. And did not have a clue as to what they were talking about.
Question: Now, even I can see there is a message here, but not sure - what it is?
Answer: Yes, it confirms the Medical Profession after all of these years does not have a clue as to the cause of Epilepsy - so to appear intelligent - they blame the Genes.
Question: Am I to understand from that answer they are not aware of the consequences of their own finding - as described in the words above?
Answer: This is the truth of it and is a pure demonstration Darwin's theory of evolution was not correct.
Question: Darwin's theory?
Answer: It is the weak or suppressed who create evolutionary change not the strong - they have no need to change. With illness being part of the evolutionary change thus an advantage not a disadvantage.
Question: May I accept and then ask - you gleaned that from. "Inherited from Mother?"
Answer: Yes, you are correct.
Question: More please?
Answer: Earlier I explained I peeked ahead; this is part of what I saw and will be covered later in more detail during my viewpoint of the true cause of Epilepsy.
Question: What is meant when the term. "Acquired," is used in the understanding of Epilepsy?
Answer: Epilepsy may occur as a result of a number of other conditions including Tumour's, strokes, head trauma, previous infections of the central nervous system, genetic abnormalities and as a result of Brain damage - around the time of Birth.
Of those with Brain Tumour's, almost 30% have Epilepsy, making them the cause of about 4% of cases.
The risk is greatest for Tumour's in the temporal lobe and those that grow slowly.
Other mass lesions such as cerebral cavernous malformations and arteriovenous malformations have risks as high as 40-60%.
Of those who have had a stroke, 2-4% develop Epilepsy.
In the United Kingdom strokes account for 15% of cases and it is believed to be the cause in 30% of the elderly.
Between 6 and 20% of Epilepsy is believed to be due to head trauma.
Mild Brain injury increases the risk about two-fold while severe Brain injury increases the risk seven-fold.
In those who have experienced a high-powered gunshot wound to the head, the risk is about 50%.
The risk of Epilepsy following Meningitis is less than 10%; that disease more commonly causes seizures during the infection itself.
In herpes simplex encephalitis, the risk of a seizure is around 50% with a high risk of Epilepsy following (up to 25%.)
Infection with the pork tapeworm, which can result in neurocysticercosis, is the cause of up to half of Epilepsy cases in areas of the world where the parasite is common.
Epilepsy may also occur after other Brain infections such as cerebral malaria, toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis.
Chronic alcohol use increases the risk of Epilepsy: those who drink six units of alcohol per day have a two and a half fold increase in risk.
Other risks include Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, tuberous sclerosis and autoimmune encephalitis.
Question: Tells us?
Question: Tells us - was a question?
Answer: And my answer was the answer - always Medical Science tells us, "WHAT," - very eloquently, but never truly "WHY."
Are they really so intelligent they are unable to see all of the above are symptoms and not cause even the Gunshot injury and the resulting seizures.
Question: What if any is the relevance of Birth in the creation of Epilepsy, or what do we as a race of People and our Medical Scientists - not understand?
Answer: Good question. in 1985 I attended a medical seminar where a Doctor was talking about Child Birth in particular Caesarean Section using Hypnosis - Not wishing to interfere with his presentation, in the break I asked him a question.
Instead of discussing the subject he turned tail and ran (not an exaggeration.)
The question to my knowledge is still unanswered today. "Where does Medical Science sit in the understanding of the secretion of the Body Chemical Hormone. "Relaxin" and comfortable Childbirth."
Question: You surely are not going to leave me with that cliff hanger?
Answer: No of course not. Relaxin should be secreted naturally about six weeks prior to a Childs Birth by the Mother, the sole purpose of Relaxin is to relax and soften the connective tissues of the pelvic girdle, Cervix and to my understanding the Vaginal Canal and Opening through which the Child will pass.
Fear depletes the ability of the Mother to make this secretion, causing the requirement of the Child life destroying - PUSH PUSH PUSH, to force the Child through the Pelvic Girdle and Vaginal Canal.
Question: Surely the Medical Profession would be able to synthesise this single hormone?
Answer: True and may well have done so - however at its peril if there was an attempt to use it.
Answer: When we have a Pain we accept if the Pain dissipates and give us relief, the pill worked. Not realising the pill affected every part of our Body even though the Body is unable to aim the medication directly at the so-called Pain site.
If we accept the activity of the natural Hormone is to soften the connective pelvic tissues, then we surely have to accept if a medication to achieve the same result, even if injected at the site - the Body would not be able to maintain the Muscle tonus to keep the Body together whilst the hormone was active and may well not return to normal after cessation of the medication.
Question: Is there a real value in being vaccinated and if so - is there an implication in the creation of Epilepsy?
Answer: It is said Medical Science has demonstrated being vaccinated does not increase the risk of Epilepsy.
Question: Do you feel this is the real truth or just the Scientific Proof?
Answer: As is their want or turning against themselves - more and more Highly Qualified Medical Practitioners are speaking publicly about the fraud of Vaccines and of late how they are implicated in the cause of Autism.
Yet, we must also consider the possibility the lives of many People have been saved by the uses of Vaccines.
If we are going to accept this then we must look at some of the illnesses supposed to have been eradicated by mass Vaccine administration - that are still somewhat and somewhere in the world; rampant.
Question: Continuing your point regarding. "Somewhere in the World," is Malnutrition implicated in Epilepsy at all?
Answer: It is reported - Malnutrition is a risk factor seen mostly in the developing world, although - it is unclear if it is a direct cause, or an association.
Question: Do you feel Malnutrition is implicated?
Answer: If we accept Malnutrition as a; "What," the answer is - not in the slightest.
Answer: To understand this we have to consider Malnutrition is no more than a symptom of an earlier cause.
Answer: A complex question with many scientifically complex answers - so let us simplify it.
Malnutrition can only survive; if there is Fear causing inadequacy - inability to cope with life's demands and as a consequence a higher Birth rate than the Family and or environment are able to provide sufficient, quality sustenance and not forgetting full - Un fettered Emotional Support.
Aided and abetted by the all-consuming Greed of others, often many thousands of miles away - where the only interest is stripping the land of the intrinsic worth, to which the indigenous People and their country, receive no or very little benefit from.
Question: How are the Mechanism relating to Epilepsy expressed by the Scientific Community?
Answer: Normally Brain electrical activity is non-synchronous.
Its activity is regulated by various factors both within the neuron and the cellular environment.
Factors within the neuron include the type, number and distribution of ion channels, changes to receptors and changes of gene expression.
Factors around the neuron include ion concentrations, synaptic plasticity and regulation of transmitter breakdown by glial cells.
Question: Explanation please?
Answer: Scientific Nonsense - made to sound important.
It is a desperate attempt to explain what is not understood and at the same time explain - it is all of Biological creation.
Question: Are you able to demonstrate that in Epilepsy?
Answer: Of course, when I said I peeked ahead - this is what I observed -
"The exact mechanism of Epilepsy itself is unknown."
However - Little is known about both the cellular and network mechanisms of Epilepsy.
Moreover, it is also unknown - under which circumstances the Brain shifts into the activity of a seizure with its excessive synchronization.
In addition - In Epilepsy the resistance of excitatory neurons to fire during this period is decreased.
This may occur due to changes in ion channels or inhibitory neurons - not functioning properly.
This then results in a specific area from which seizures may develop.
Question: Satisfied - thank you. Where do they go from here?
Answer: They continue this sad and confused state of affairs with. "This process is known as a, "seizure focus."
And - Another mechanism of Epilepsy may be the up-regulation of excitatory circuits or down-regulation of inhibitory circuits following an injury to the Brain.
These secondary Epilepsies occur through processes known as Epileptogenesis.
Question: What is Epiletogenesis?
Answer: Epileptogenesis is the gradual process by which a normal Brain develops Epilepsy.
These changes to the Brain occasionally cause neurons to fire in a hyper-synchronous manner.
This hyper-synchronous firing of neurons is called a seizure.
Question: It is clear. "What," is at play here again - when are we going to get to the "Why?"
Answer: Soon, there is much "What" confusion, to troll through yet.
Failure of the blood-Brain barrier may also be a causal mechanism, as it would allow substances in the Blood to enter the Brain.
Question: What do they mean by. "Substances?"
Answer: I would like to say, "your guess is as good as mine," sadly however, the answer for me if not Medical Science - is very clear.
Question: Well - what is that?
Answer: We will come to that soon.
Question: Are you suggesting there is more to be understood with Seizures?
Answer: Yes a lot more, or maybe from here to the end of this discussion - just a regurgitation by Medical Science in order to confuse or distract readers from understanding; how little is really known about Epilepsy.
There is evidence that Epileptic Seizures are usually - not a random event.
Seizures are often brought on by factors such as lack of sleep, stress or flickering light among others.
The term seizure threshold is used to indicate the amount of stimulus necessary to bring about a seizure.
Seizure threshold is lowered in Epilepsy.
In Epileptic Seizures - a group of neurons begin firing in an abnormal, excessive and synchronized manner
This results in a wave of depolarisation known as a paroxysmal depolarising shift.
Normally, after an excitatory neuron fires - it becomes more resistant to firing for a period of time.
This is due in part to the effect of inhibitory neurons, electrical changes within the excitatory neuron and the negative effects of adenosine.
Partial seizures begin in one hemisphere of the Brain - while generalized seizures begin in both hemispheres.
Some types of seizures may change Brain structure, while others appear to have little effect.
Gliosis, neuronal loss and atrophy of specific areas of the Brain are linked to Epilepsy but it is unclear if Epilepsy causes these changes or if these changes result in Epilepsy.
Question: Point taken and clearly explained? So may we explore Diagnoses?
Answer: Whilst it is reported. An EEG can aid in locating the focus of the Epileptic seizure.
The diagnosis of Epilepsy is typically made based on observation of the seizure onset and the underlying cause.
Neuroimaging to look at the function of the Brain such as electroencephalogram and structure of the Brain such as MRI are also usually part of the workup.
While figuring out a specific Epileptic syndrome is often attempted, it is not always possible.
However - Video and EEG monitoring may be useful in difficult cases.
Question: Is this a demonstration of Guesswork, is the only effective tool Medical Science really has to hand.
Answer: Sadly, this is so. Confirmed by their own Definitions:
Epilepsy is a disorder of the Brain defined by any of the following conditions:
At least two unprovoked or reflex seizures occurring greater than 24 hours apart.
One unprovoked or reflex seizure and a probability of further seizures similar to the general recurrence risk (at least 60%) after two unprovoked seizures, occurring over the next 10 years.
Or in other words watchful waiting - cute word for sub clinical or in its real terminology Primary Cause.
Question: What is Primary Cause?
Answer: Secret code used by the medical profession to give the impression they know something important we do not and therefore cannot; Understand - in realty; the truth is; they do not know.
Question: Is there a cure for Epilepsy or when does the Medical Profession deem it has been cured?
Answer: Like ALL other illnesses there is no definitive scientifically proven cure, however, Epilepsy is considered to be resolved for individuals who had an age-dependent Epilepsy Syndrome but are now past the that age or those who have remained seizure-free for the last 10 years, with no seizure medicines for the last 5 years.
This 2014 definition of the International League Against Epilepsy is a refinement of their 2005 definition, which is, "a disorder of the Brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate Epileptic Seizures and by the neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological and social consequences of this condition."
Question: So in age related Epilepsy is it fair to say it was NOT Medical Science responsible for the cure?
Answer: This must be considered so - they grew out of it by their own action.
Question: Do you feel this was the end or a new beginning?
Answer: If one had a case history for every Person one may well observe they had a later and more destructive MRI recognised style of disorder.
Question: How is Epilepsy defined?
Answer: It is stated - The definition of Epilepsy requires the occurrence of at least one Epileptic Seizure."
In addition, it is therefore possible to outgrow Epilepsy or to undergo treatment that causes the Epilepsy to be resolved.
Question: Surely, this is a definition of a Cure?
Answer: As always in medical parlance - the devil is always in the detail.
Hence, it is scientifically confirmed - Resolution of Epilepsy unfortunately - does not guarantee it will not return.
Question: Is that watchful waiting or invoice creation?
Answer: Both. Confirmed by - In the definition, Epilepsy is now called a Disease, rather than a disorder.
Answer: Sadly so. It appears this was a decision of the executive committee of a major Epilepsy group, taken because the word "disorder," while perhaps having less stigma than does "disease," does not express the degree of seriousness that Epilepsy deserves.
The definition is practical in nature and designed for clinical use.
Question: Have we not and for quite a number of years been in the process of removing the stigma of illness - not increasing it?
Answer: This is the truth of it - sadly, for anyone concerned from the clinical side of things that includes charities to support sufferers - if the stigma is removed it would destroy their profits, no profit in a cure of an illness everyone accepts as normal.
Question: Where does that leave? Researchers, statistically minded epidemiologists and other specialised groups?
Answer: These may choose to use the older definition or a definition of their own devising - Very profitable.
Question: So is this acceptable activity for such a prestigious group?
Answer: The Committee having made the decision - considers doing so is perfectly allowable, so long as it is clear what definition is being used.
Question: So with this form of contradiction or perhaps better-said confusion - how are dedicated clinicians supposed to really and truthfully put this into a satisfactory Classification?
Answer: In contrast to the classification of seizures that focuses on what happens during a seizure, the classification of Epilepsies focuses on the underlying causes.
When a Person is admitted to hospital after an Epileptic Seizure the diagnostic workup results preferably in the seizure itself being classified - e.g. tonic-clonic and in the underlying disease being identified - e.g. hippocampal sclerosis.
The name of the diagnosis finally made depends on the available diagnostic results and the applied definitions and classifications of Seizures, Epilepsies and the respective terminology.
The committee Against Epilepsy provided a classification of the Epilepsies and Epileptic syndromes as follows:
Localization-related Epilepsies and Syndromes.
Unknown cause - benign Childhood Epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.
Symptomatic/cryptogenic - temporal lobe Epilepsy.
Unknown cause - Childhood absence Epilepsy.
Cryptogenic or symptomatic - Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
Symptomatic - early infantile Epileptic encephalopathy with suppression burst.
Epilepsies and syndromes undetermined whether partial or generalized.
With both generalized and partial seizures.
Epilepsy with continuous spike-waves during slow wave sleep.
Special syndromes with situation-related seizures.
Question: Does all of this give rise to believe a lot is known these days or not?
Answer: No, it is all regurgitating profit making nonsense of no long-term value in the understanding and indeed secure treatment of - Simple, let alone complex Epilepsy.
Question: Does this demonstrate more criticisms from the inside - rather than from external sources?
Answer: Yes, this is so - This classification was widely accepted, but has also been criticized mainly because the underlying causes of Epilepsy, which are a major determinant of clinical course and prognosis, were not covered in detail.
Question: As a result of the criticisms, were any changes considered or implemented?
Answer: In 2010 - the Commission for Classification of the Epilepsies addressed this issue and divided Epilepsies into three categories: genetic, structural/metabolic and unknown cause.
These were refined in the 2011 recommendation into four categories and a number of subcategories - reflecting recent technologic and scientific advances...
...Unknown cause - mostly genetic or presumed genetic origin.
Pure Epilepsies due to single gene disorders.
Pure Epilepsies with complex inheritance.
Symptomatic - associated with gross anatomic or pathologic abnormalities.
Mostly genetic or developmental causation.
Childhood Epilepsy Syndromes.
Progressive myoclonic Epilepsies.
Other neurologic single gene disorders.
Disorders of chromosome function.
Developmental anomalies of cerebral structure.
Mostly acquired causes.
Perinatal and infantile causes.
Cerebral trauma, tumour or infection.
Cerebral immunologic disorders.
Degenerative and other neurologic conditions.
Provoked - a specific systemic or environmental factor is the predominant cause of the seizures.
Question: What is "Provoked" and are there other Provoking factors?
Answer: Here are a few.
Crytogenic - presumed symptomatic nature in which the cause has not been identified.
Question: Help me please; I am floundering?
Answer: Help is at hand - all of this is no more than a regurgitation in new words and expressions of earlier findings - presumably to satisfy some governing body or research funding provider, desperate to sell more medications or surgical interventions.
In reality not much to do with alleviating suffering by finding a cure.
Question: Please demonstrate some validity of your comments?
Answer: Of course - We must always remember the framework of this paper and the comments contained within and below are in fact a collection of the available medical research, where the main article: Epilepsy Syndromes - is in the public domain on Wikipedia. To who; once again I thank them for their incredible work in presenting this paper for us to evaluate.
Cases of Epilepsy may be organized into Epilepsy Syndromes by the specific features that are present.
These features include the age that seizures begin, the seizure types, EEG findings, among others.
Identifying an Epilepsy Syndrome is useful, as it helps determine the underlying causes as well as what anti-seizure medication should be tried.
The ability to categorize a case of Epilepsy into a specific syndrome occurs more often with Children - since the onset of seizures is commonly early.
Less serious examples are benign Rolandic Epilepsy (2.8 per 100,000), Childhood Absence Epilepsy (0.8 per 100,000) and juvenile myoclonic Epilepsy (0.7 per 100,000.)
Severe syndromes with diffuse Brain dysfunction caused, at least partly, by some aspect of Epilepsy, are also referred to as Epileptic Encephalopathies.
These are associated with frequent seizures that are resistant to treatment and severe cognitive dysfunction, for instance Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and West syndrome.
Genetics is believed to play an important role in Epilepsies by a number of mechanisms.
Simple and complex modes of inheritance have been identified for some of them.
However, extensive screenings have failed to identify many single gene variants of large effect.
More recent exome and genome sequencing studies have begun to reveal a number of de novo (From the new, implying anew or from scratch) gene mutations that are responsible for some Epileptic encephalopathies, including CHD2 and SYNGAP1and DMN1, GABBR2, FASN and RYR3.
Syndromes in which causes are not clearly identified are difficult to match with categories of the current classification of Epilepsy.
Categorization for these cases was made somewhat arbitrarily based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system.
The idiopathic - unknown cause category of the 2011 classification includes syndromes in which the general clinical features and/or age specificity strongly point to a presumed genetic cause.
Some Childhood Epilepsy Syndromes are included in the unknown cause category in which the cause is presumed genetic, for instance benign Rolandic Epilepsy.
Others are included in symptomatic despite a presumed genetic cause in at least some cases, for instance Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
Clinical syndromes in which Epilepsy is not the main feature - Angelman syndrome were categorized symptomatic - but it was argued to include these within the category idiopathic.
Classification of Epilepsies and particularly of Epilepsy Syndromes will change with advances in research.
Question: If we try to collate all of the above from this last burst of information - are Tests really of long-term value in the understanding and treatment of Epilepsy? And what about all these posh sounding names
Answer: An electroencephalogram (EEG) can assist in showing Brain activity suggestive of an increased risk of seizures. Indeed names are just that and of no value if the cause is not known or a cure produced.
It is only recommended for those who are likely to have had an Epileptic Seizure on the basis of symptoms.
In the diagnosis of Epilepsy, electroencephalography may help distinguish the type of seizure or syndrome present.
In Children - it is typically only needed after a second seizure.
It cannot be used to rule out the diagnosis and may be falsely positive in those without the disease.
In certain situations - it may be useful to perform the EEG while the affected individual is sleeping or sleep deprived.
Diagnostic imaging by CT scan and MRI is recommended after a first non-febrile seizure to detect structural problems in and around the Brain.
MRI is generally a better imaging test except when bleeding is suspected, for which CT is more sensitive and more easily available.
If someone attends the emergency room with a seizure but returns to normal quickly, imaging tests may be done at a later point.
If a Person has a previous diagnosis of Epilepsy with previous imaging, repeating the imaging is usually not needed - even if there are subsequent seizures. No Brain Plasticity is to be seen or expected.
For adults, the testing of electrolyte, blood glucose and calcium levels is important to rule out problems with these as causes.
An electrocardiogram can rule out problems with the rhythm of the heart.
A lumbar puncture may be useful to diagnose a central nervous system infection - but is not routinely needed.
In Children - additional tests may be required such as urine biochemistry and blood testing looking for metabolic disorders.
A high blood prolactin level within the first 20 minutes following a seizure may be useful to help confirm an Epileptic Seizure as opposed to psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizure.
Serum prolactin level is less useful for detecting partial seizures.
If it is normal - an Epileptic Seizure is still possible and a serum prolactin does not separate Epileptic Seizures from Syncope - a temporary loss of consciousness caused by a fall in blood pressure.
It is not recommended as a routine part of the diagnosis of Epilepsy.
Question: What is a Differential Diagnosis?
Answer: It appears when a Diagnosis of Epilepsy - which can be difficult is attempted, a number of other conditions may present very similar signs and symptoms to seizures.
Including syncope, hyperventilation, migraines, narcolepsy, panic attacks and psychogenic (of Mind cause) non-Epileptic seizures.
In particular - syncope can be accompanied by a short episode of convulsions.
Nocturnal frontal lobe Epilepsy, often misdiagnosed as nightmares, was considered to be a parasomnia but later identified to be Epileptic.
Attacks of the movement disorder paroxysmal dyskinesia may be taken for Epileptic Seizures.
The cause of a drop attack can be, among many others, an atonic seizure.
Children may have behaviours that are easily mistaken for Epileptic Seizures but are not.
These include breath-holding spells, bed-wetting, night terrors, tics and shudder attacks.
Gastroesophageal reflux may cause arching of the back and twisting of the head to the side in infants, which may be mistaken for tonic-clonic seizures.
Misdiagnosis is frequent occurring in about 5 to 30% of cases.
Different studies showed that in many cases seizure-like attacks in apparent treatment-resistant Epilepsy have a cardiovascular cause.
Approximately 20% of the People seen at Epilepsy clinics have PNES (Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures) and of those who have about 10% also have Epilepsy; separating the two based on the seizure episode alone without further testing is often difficult.
Question: Says What?
Answer: Indeed "What" means in real terms - If "we" in The Medical Profession accepted we have a Mind then we would not be required to try to sound important - we would really know what we are talking about.
Confirmed by this, "often misdiagnosed as nightmares."
Question: Is there a factor where Prevention plays an active part?
Answer: One would like to think so!
However, the reports continue to suggest - While many cases are not preventable, efforts to reduce head injuries, provide good care around the time of birth and reduce environmental parasites such as the pork tapeworm - may be effective.
Efforts in one part of Central America to decrease rates of pork tapeworm resulted in a 50% decrease in new cases of Epilepsy.
Question: Like in so many illnesses - As Management of illnesses is only of short-term efficacy, is it any different in Epilepsy?
Answer: Management of Epilepsy is usually with daily medication once a second seizure has occurred, but for those at high risk, medication may be started after the first seizure.
In some cases, a special diet, the implantation of a neurostimulator, or neurosurgery may be required.
Question: Is suggestive of?
Answer: If only "we" Doctors knew the Mind was at work - we would not still have to guess in late 2015.
Question: Where does First Aid fit into the program of understanding and working with Epilepsy?
Answer: As always - it is essential we recognise our dedicated front line medical teams are doing their very best with old-fashioned profit making tools, techniques and understandings, not of their own creation - thus First Aid, another word for management, is a necessity.
Rolling a Person with an active tonic-clonic seizure onto their side and into the recovery position helps prevent fluids from getting into the lungs.
Putting fingers, a bite block or tongue depressor in the mouth is not recommended as it might make the Person vomit or result in the rescuer being bitten.
Efforts should be taken to prevent further self-injury.
Spinal precautions are generally not needed.
If a seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes or if there are more than two seizures in an hour without a return to a normal level of consciousness between them, it is considered a medical emergency known as Status Epilepticus.
This may require medical help to keep the airway open and protected; a nasopharyngeal airway may be useful for this.
At home - the recommended initial medication for seizure of a long duration is midazolam placed in the mouth.
Diazepam may also be used rectally.
In hospital, intravenous lorazepam is preferred.
If two doses of benzodiazepines are not effective, other medications such as phenytoin are recommended.
Convulsive Status Epilepticus that does not respond to initial treatment typically requires admission to the intensive care unit and treatment with stronger agents such as thiopentone or propofol.
Question: What is Status Epilepticus?
Answer: Like the word often used in the emergency room STAT (NOW) - Status Epilepticus is a slang word to ensure - they sound important and know what they are doing. In reality saying. "The Person is having a fit!"
Questions: I know as you are not medically qualified medications are not in your remit - may we discuss them in an abstract way?
Answer: Yes, it is outside of the law, as well as being morally and therapeutically wrong for me to involve myself in medications - other than knowing a Person I am treating has been legally prescribed or otherwise taking them.
May we also remember the comments are from the Wikipedia paper and only aided in presentation by my editing.
It is well published - The mainstay treatment of Epilepsy is anticonvulsant medications, possibly for the Person's entire life.
The choice of anticonvulsant is based on seizure type, Epilepsy Syndrome, other medications used, other health problems and the Person's age and lifestyle.
A single medication is recommended initially; if this is not effective, switching to a single or another medication is recommended.
Two medications at once are recommended - only if a single medication does not work.
In about half, the first agent is effective; a second single agent helps in about 13% and a third or two agents at the same time may help an additional 4%.
About 30% of People continue to have seizures despite anticonvulsant treatment.
There are a number of medications available.
Phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate appear to be equally effective in both partial and generalized seizures.
Controlled release carbamazepine appears to work as well as immediate release carbamazepine and may have fewer side effects.
In the United Kingdom, carbamazepine or lamotrigine are recommended as first-line treatment for partial seizures, with levetiracetam and valproate as second-line due to issues of cost and side effects.
Valproate is recommended first-line for generalized seizures with lamotrigine being second-line.
In those with absence seizures, ethosuximide or valproate are recommended; valproate is particularly effective in myoclonic seizures and tonic or atonic seizures.
If seizures are well-controlled on a particular treatment, it is not usually necessary to routinely check the medication levels in the blood.
The least expensive anticonvulsant is phenobarbital at around $5 USD a year.
The World Health Organization gives it a first-line recommendation in the developing world and it is commonly used there.
Access however may be difficult as some countries label it as a controlled drug.
Adverse effects from medications are reported in 10 to 90% of People, depending on how and from whom the data is collected.
Most adverse effects are dose-related and mild.
Some examples include mood changes, sleepiness, or an unsteadiness in gait.
Certain medications have side-effects that are not related to dose such as rashes, liver toxicity or suppression of the bone marrow.
Up to a quarter of People - stop treatment due to adverse effects.
Some medications are associated with Birth defects when used in pregnancy.
Valproate is of particular concern, especially during the first trimester.
Despite this, treatment is often continued once effective, because the risk of untreated Epilepsy is believed to be greater - than the risk of the medications.
Slowly stopping medications may be reasonable in some People who do not have a seizure for two to four years; however, around a third of People have a recurrence, most often during the first six months.
Stopping is possible in about 70% of Children and 60% of Adults.
Question: All very illuminating - what about Surgery?
Answer: The papers suggest - Epilepsy surgery may be an option for People with partial seizures - that remain a problem despite other treatments.
These other treatments include at least a trial of two or three medications.
The goal of surgery is total control of seizures and this may be achieved in 60-70% of cases.
Common procedures include cutting out the hippocampus via an anterior temporal lobe resection, removal of Tumour's and removing parts of the neocortex.
Some procedures such as a corpus callosotomy are attempted in an effort to decrease the number of seizures - rather than cure the condition.
Following surgery, medications may be slowly withdrawn in many cases.
Neurostimulation may be another option in those who are not candidates for surgery.
Three types have been shown to be effective in those who do not respond to medications: vagus nerve stimulation, anterior thalamic stimulation and closed-loop responsive stimulation.
Question: Are there other approaches in the form of symptoms management - in the absence of a cure?
Answer: Yes indeed, it appears there are - however we must accept Desperate People do desperate things and one of them is not accepting failure when it stares one in the face.
A ketogenic diet - high-fat, low-carbohydrate, adequate-protein appears to decrease the number of seizures by half in about 30-40% of Children.
It is a reasonable option in those who have Epilepsy that is not improved with medications and for whom surgery is not an option.
Question: Has exercise been considered?
Answer: Whilst is has to be recognised People in order to be healthy have to have some form of exercise - it has to be recognised People can only do what they can and no amount of goading will ensure they are long-term able to do more.
However - It has been suggested - Exercise is possibly useful for preventing seizures with some data to support this claim.
Question: Are there other forms of therapy being used or considered?
Answer: Indeed there is - Avoidance therapy consists of minimizing or eliminating triggers.
For example, in those who are sensitive to light, using a small television, avoiding video-games or wearing dark glasses may be useful.
Operant-based biofeedback based on the EEG waves has some support in those who do not respond to medications.
Question: As you continually demonstrate by Medical Science own words and Scientifically Proven papers they do not know much of worth at all - what would there reaction be to Therapies of the Mind?
Answer: It is reported in such Scientifically proven papers Psychological methods should not, however, be used to replace medications.
Question: Would you agree or disagree with this viewpoint?
Answer: Of course I would - any therapist having only the Patients best interest as a concern that interfered with medications, needs their Brain examined.
In the same manner any Medially Trained Person not willing to work with a Therapist using only Mind-Body orientated Talking therapy ought to undergo a lobotomy to see if they had a Brain - let alone a Mind.
Question: When one considers the untapped ability of Animals in our world - are animals used in any form of Seizure control or treatment?
Answer: Recognising an impending earthquake would be a clear demonstration of Animals sensory ability - it is reported. Some Dogs, also referred to as Seizure Dogs, may help during or after a seizure.
However - It is not clear if Dogs have the ability to predict seizures before they occur.
Question: How does Medical Science view or even use any form of Alternative medicine?
Answer: In answering this question, I am obliged to remember a quote I wrote a while ago...
"...If you are the one making the smoke - what right do you have calling the Kettle Black;"
Alternative medicine, including acupuncture, psychological interventions, routine vitamins and yoga, have no reliable evidence to support their use in epilepsy.
Melatonin is insufficiently supported by evidence.
There is not enough evidence to support the use of cannabis. However; One may consider this is under review in line with the recent interest in the use of Cannabis in treating many illnesses.
Question: Do you have any views regarding Cannabis use in the treatment of long standing mysterious no known cause and no known cure illness and in this instance Epilepsy?
Answer: As always the devil is in the detail. "If Medical Science says it has the Scientific Proof," yet is unable to or never demonstrates it really does and as Desperate People will do desperate things - they will turn to anything in pursuit of Understanding and satisfactory relief of their illness woes. Demonstrated by...
...Epilepsy cannot usually be cured, but medication can control seizures effectively in about 70% of cases.
Question: Now please answer my question? Do you have a view about the use of so-called Medical Cannabis?
Answer: Sadly, I feel this is just about the most self-destructive understanding Medical Science has ever made. For it will be a self-destroying prophesy of the entire Medical Profession as we know it.
For in the interim - Cannabis will not only show efficacy in many of the so-called mysterious illness Medical Science has in real terms never had control of, it will destroy the use of many if not all of the so called medications used to poorly manage all illness.
However - it is the long-term we should be most interested in...
Since time began Mankind has sought to understand and cure illness and the only measurable success in late 2015 - is of total Failure.
Are we really to believe Cannabis - whether Natural or of Medical manipulation will long term show success as still today NO ONE will truly accept...
...the Mind creates all we survey.
Of those with generalized seizures, more than 80% can be well controlled with medications...
...while this is true in only 50% of People with partial seizures.
One predictor of long-term outcome is the number of seizures that occur in the first six months.
Other factors increasing the risk of a poor outcome include little response to the initial treatment, generalized seizures, a family history of Epilepsy, psychiatric problems and waves on the EEG representing generalized epileptiform activity.
In the developing world - 75% of People are either untreated or not appropriately treated.
In one so called underdeveloped or emerging country - 90% do not get treatment.
This is partly related to appropriate medications not being available or being too expensive.
With 100,000 illnesses recognised and diagnosed by the Medical Profession still awaiting the true cause and a definitive cure to be found - one has to consider there is enough smoke being generated by bad Medical Science to - like the Volcanic Eruption that in 1883 completely destroyed the island Krakatoa in Indonesia and is possibly a serious contributory factor to what is cutely known as Climate Change and Cannabis in all of its forms will be revolutionary in the medium outcome of obliterating Medical Science for ever...
Question: How does the Medical Profession explain Mortality?
Answer: One may consider in every scientifically proven paper relating to Epilepsy it would state with a serious amount of Provenance (Chronology of ownership) - People with Epilepsy are at an increased risk of Death.
This increase is between 1.6 and 4.1 fold greater than that of the general population and is often related to; the underlying cause of the seizures, status epilepticus, suicide, trauma, and sudden unexpected death in Epilepsy (SUDEP.)
Death from status epilepticus is primarily due to an underlying problem rather than missing doses of medications.
The risk of suicide is increased between two and six times in those with Epilepsy...
...The cause of this is unclear.
SUDEP appears to be partly related to the frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and accounts for about 15% of Epilepsy related deaths...
...It is unclear how to decrease its risk.
The greatest increase in mortality from Epilepsy is among the elderly...
...Those with Epilepsy due to an unknown cause have little increased risk.
In the United Kingdom, it is estimated that 40-60% of Deaths are possibly preventable.
In the developing world - many Deaths are due to untreated Epilepsy leading to falls or Status Epilepticus.
Question: What is Epidemiology and how useful is it in the understanding of ill health?
Answer: Epidemiology - is the study of the patterns, causes and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
It is the cornerstone of public health and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice, by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for - preventive healthcare.
Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders affecting about 65 million People globally.
It affects 1% of the population by age 20 and 3% of the population by age 75.
It is more common in Males than Females with the overall difference being small.
Most of those with the disorder (80%) are in the developing world.
The number of People who currently have active Epilepsy is in the range 5-10 per 1,000, with active Epilepsy defined as someone with Epilepsy who has had a least one seizure in the last five years
Epilepsy begins each year in 40-70 per 100,000 in developed countries and 80-140 per 100,000 in developing countries.
Poverty is a risk and includes both being from a poor country and being poor relative to others within one's country.
In the developed world - Epilepsy most commonly starts either in the young or in the old.
In the developing world, its onset is more common in older Children and Young Adults due to the higher rates of trauma and infectious diseases.
In developed countries - the number of cases a year has decreased in Children and increased among the elderly between the 1970s and 2003.
This has been attributed partly to better survival following strokes in the elderly.
Question: What does this unwittingly tell us?
Answer: If one looks under a gooseberry bush expecting to find a Child - one is looking in the wrong place, on purpose!
Question: It is strange how it appears all Medical and Scientifically Proven papers end up by what one may consider most important to start such a discussion as this - with the History.
Answer: It does seem strange but this appears to be the order of how things are Scientifically Written up.
The oldest medical records show that Epilepsy has been affecting People at least since the beginning of recorded history.
Throughout ancient history, the disorder was thought to be a spiritual condition.
The world's oldest description of an Epileptic Seizure comes from a text in Akkadian - a language used in ancient Mesopotamia and was written around 2000 BC.
The Person described in the text was diagnosed as being under the influence of a Moon God and underwent an exorcism.
Epileptic Seizures are listed in the Code of Hammurabi (c. 1790 BC) as reason for which a purchased slave may be returned for a refund and the Edwin Smith Papyrus (c. 1700 BC) describes cases of individuals with Epileptic Convulsions.
The oldest known detailed record of the disorder itself is in the Sakikku, a Babylonian cuneiform medical text from 1067–1046 BC.
This text gives signs and symptoms, details treatment and likely outcomes and describes many features of the different seizure types.
As the Babylonians had no biomedical understanding of the nature of disease, they attributed the seizures to possession by evil spirits and called for treating the condition through spiritual means.
Around 900 BC, Punarvasu Atreya described Epilepsy as loss of Consciousness; this definition was carried forward into the Ayurvedic text of Charaka Samhita (about 400 BC).
The ancient Greeks had contradictory views of the disease.
They thought of Epilepsy as a form of spiritual possession, but also associated the condition with genius and the divine.
One of the names they gave to it was the sacred disease.
Epilepsy appears within Greek mythology: it is associated with the Moon goddesses Selene and Artemis, who afflicted those who upset them.
The Greeks thought that important figures such as Julius Caesar and Hercules had the disease.
The notable exception to this divine and spiritual view was that of the school of Hippocrates. In the fifth century BC, Hippocrates rejected the idea that the disease was caused by spirits.
In his landmark work On the Sacred Disease, he proposed that Epilepsy was not divine in origin and instead was a medically treatable problem originating in the Brain.
He accused those of attributing a sacred cause to the disease of spreading ignorance through a belief in superstitious magic.
Hippocrates proposed that heredity was important as a cause, described worse outcomes if the disease presents at an early age and made note of the physical characteristics as well as the social shame associated with it.
Instead of referring to it as the sacred disease, he used the term "great disease," giving rise to the modern term "grand mal," used for generalized seizures.
Despite his work detailing the physical origins of the disease, his view was not accepted at the time.
Evil spirits continued to be blamed until at least the 17th century.
In most cultures, Persons with Epilepsy have been stigmatized, shunned, or even imprisoned; in the Salpêtrière, the birthplace of modern neurology, Jean-Martin Charcot found People with Epilepsy side-by-side with the mentally ill, those with chronic syphilis and the criminally insane.
In ancient Rome, Epilepsy was known as the Morbus Comitialis ('disease of the assembly hall') and was seen as a curse from the Gods.
In northern Italy, Epilepsy was once traditionally known as Saint Valentine's malady.
In the mid-1800s - the first effective anti-seizure medication, bromide, was introduced.
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