Talking Cures
Because Pain illness and fatigue are destructive to our
Health, Wealth and Well being...

Scott Dehorty Pain Recovery Program Manager

(Free membership required link)

linkedin.com Group: Chronic Pain Management Support

Link to story: Explaining Opioid Induced Hyperalgesia

My pain level seems to be getting higher even though I am taking higher doses of opiate medication.

Why is that? Is this common?

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Dear Scott Dehorty Pain Recovery Program Manager

Nice blog.

May I say it would show greater efficacy if the word Brain only an agent of the Mind - was dropped in favour of the Mind.

Pain may well be accident or incident created - this should self-repair.

Trauma created Pain is never in the body at all - it is only a process of the Mind - a memory and will only create more intense Pain until the traumas in the Mind are resolved.

Keep up the good work we do not have far to go now for Medical Science to find out the Mind actually exists.

Kindest regards and best wishes.

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Mr. Smith

Interested in your thoughts on neuroplasticity.

Do you see this as a Brain-Mind connection?

I've been concentrating on the Pain mapping in the Brain research and how it relates to one's emotions and cognition.

Scott Dehorty

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Dear Scott

Well thank you kind Sir, your wish is my command.

I will write a response to your questions and publish as soon as possible.

Kindest regards and best wishes.

Peter Smith Talking Cures

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If in reading this paper my writing appears to be like a foreign language or even rambling.

Consider reading this paper not as a book - take some time to comprehend the contents - where I would like to think and feel sure it will make sense?

So often, we read or hear in detail "What" about an illness - but rarely if ever does anyone take the time to truly explain. "Why," this paper is designed to answer many of the questions - we are so often left with.

Where many times we have the questions and no answers - or the answers and not the questions.

If I have unwittingly left anything out or not answered fully; please email me (at the end of this page) and I will include it in the Paper at the earliest opportunity.

Please include a copy and paste if possible of the item that is not clear.

Did we not all struggle as a Child to learn many things we now through the experience of life we are now extremely competent at.

No apology if offered if discussions are repeated within this paper - this framework for this paper is supplied by Wikipedia all I have done is converted its contents into question and answer format hence the repeating is in the original paper.

Furthermore the understanding for this, is nothing is more repeating than illness that is there every day of one's life and - despite treatments does not get better or have a satisfactory explanation/understanding.

The first thing in the process of answering this is, for any one suffering...

- "New understandings are required about illness..."

...as it appears - the existing education is the same worldwide? Non-existent.

From Talking Cures point of view and therapeutic practice - names of illness especially Medically Diagnosed recognised and scientifically proven, are of no real value in the understanding and treatment of any illness - the only Name we should use or symptom we may label is...

"A Person is unable to achieve a Healthy and satisfactory lifestyle.”

Question: My pain level seems to be getting higher even though I am taking higher doses of opiate medication? Why is this?

Answer: Because the Pain in not in the part of the Body that hurts, it is a process of the Mind that will not let Medications alter the thought process until satisfactory understandings as too the true cause - are received.

Question: How does "Pain mapping" feature in Brain research and how does it relates to one's emotions and cognition.

Answer: The simple answer to this whilst Pain Mapping must be recognised that it features heavily in Medical Research, it does not figure at all in our emotions and cognitive behaviour as the Brain is only an agent of the Mind and thus anything emanating from the Brain is no more than a symptom.

May we start with Pain Mapping in the Brain.

Time will tell as Medical Science catches up with Talking Cures - the Brain is no more than an organ - of no value in the running of a life and body without the Mind, its memories and thoughts.

Thus, it is fitting any research into the Brain and trying to link Emotions and the use of the word Cognition admirably demonstrates. "Cognition is the set of all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge, attention, memory, working memory, judgment, evaluation, reasoning, "computation," problem solving, decision making, comprehension and production of language.

Thus. All of these can clearly be seen as Process of the Mind and not Brain activity at all.

There is the same sadness in Pain mapping as there is in Brain mapping - an activity that grew out of desperation of earning a new funding stream way back in the mid-eighties.

Pain still so poorly understood and managed in 2015 being a clear demonstration of the failure in Pain and Brain mapping - relative to long-term relief of Pain.

May we now evaluate for you - Neuroplasticity. In Question and Answer form.

Neuroplasticity

Courtesy of Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia.

Question:  When I consider Neuroplasticity is not in Talking Cures remit - have you not taken on more than you are able to cope with?

Answer: Nice point and very worthy, however when I take into consideration the opening line of Wikipedia's presentation of Scientific knowledge. "Contrary to conventional thought as expressed in this diagram, Brain functions are not confined to certain fixed locations."

It is clear for me, the researchers took on more than they could understand.

However, let us continue this interesting quest.

Question: What is Neuroplasticity? And does it have any other names?

Answer: Neuroplasticity is also known as Brain plasticity and is an umbrella term that encompasses both synaptic plasticity and non-synaptic plasticity.

Question: What is Plasticity in relation to the Brain; if we have to use such a word as Brain?

Answer: In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.

Plastic change also results from the alteration of the number of neurotransmitter receptors located on a synapse.

Question: What if anything - does this suggest so far?

Answer: Hedging ones bets comes easily to mind. Thus, nothing of value or a precursor to ensure all Pain is of biological creation and nothing to do with the Mind.

Question: Come on you cannot have derived that from the small exchange of information so far - so what does it suggest?

Answer: It refers to changes in neural pathways and synapses due to changes in behaviour, environment, neural processes, thinking and emotions - as well as to changes resulting from bodily injury.

Question:  Where does that take us?

Answer: Not us - them, as already it is steeped in back to front medical thinking.

Question: How have you gleaned that from the small amount of information?

Answer: The clue is in this "changes resulting from bodily injury," if one attempts to study or worse treat Pain from this angle - one is lost before the start.

Question:  How is that?

Answer: Pain from a bodily injury comes in two forms and two only - Pain either self repairs, requires no assistance and cannot be studied.

Or never repairs, thus it is no longer - if indeed it ever was - in the Body, as it is a process of the Mind and will defy all study and medication interference.

Question: May we start to evaluate? Neuroplasticity in earnest now?

Answer: Of course. The concept of neuroplasticity has replaced the formerly held position, the Brain is a physiologically static organ and explores how and in which ways, the Brain changes in the course of a lifetime.

Question: So is this demonstrating the controversy of aged against new age Medical thinking?

Answer: Yes indeed it does.

Question:  So does the Brain change in the course of a lifetime?

Answer: Of course it does, it gets bigger - as indeed do we, until we stop growing.

Question: That does not answer my question?

Answer: Neuroplasticity occurs on a variety of levels, ranging from cellular changes - due to learning, to large-scale changes involved in cortical remapping, in response to injury.

Question: Still does not answer my question?

Answer: If one has the opportunity in the same manner as medical Researchers of looking at a Brain with a Visual imaging device, all you will see is an organ - no Pain and no Thoughts/Memories.

Thus; changes seen in the Brain are no more than a symptom of something desiring change.

Question: What then, is the recognition of Neuroplasticity?

Answer: The role of neuroplasticity is widely recognized in healthy development, learning, memory and recovery from Brain damage.

Question: Is that not playing away and at home at the same time?

Answer: Yes indeed, the first part is natural growing of the entire Body not just the Brain and learning - be that good bad or indifferent.

The second is of no scientific value if the Mind is not taken into consideration - post an accident style incident or surgery.

Question:  So does this leave Neuroscientists in a quandary or somewhat stuck in aged thinking?

Answer: Indeed it does, for. During most of the 20th century, neuroscientists maintained a scientific consensus that Brain structure was relatively "immutable" after a critical period during early Childhood.

Question: What does that mean?

Answer: It is clear today as it was in the Twentieth Century; Pain understandings and treatments have never improved as there is a still a belief, "immutable" objects (Brain) is one whose state cannot be modified after it is created.

Question: Can this be explained or expanded upon?

Answer: Yes, This is in direct contrast to a mutable object, which can be modified after it is created - like a malleable Mind.

Question:  Has this belief been challenged?

Answer: It appears there are findings that reveal - many aspects of the Brain remain plastic, even into adulthood.

Question: How?

Answer: It has been demonstrated that ocular dominance columns in the lowest neocortical visual area, V1, remained largely immutable after the critical period in development.

Question: Says "WHAT?"

Answer: Exactly. That is just about the lot of Medical Science tells "What" never Why.

Question: How can this be demonstrated?

Answer: Researchers studied critical periods with respect to language; the resulting Data suggested that sensory pathways were fixed after the critical period.

Question: Are you able to see another meaning behind this? "Studies determined that environmental changes could alter behaviour and cognition by modifying connections between existing neurons and via neurogenesis in the hippocampus and in other parts of the Brain, including in the cerebellum.

Answer: Yes, although - Decades of research have shown that substantial changes occur in the lowest neocortical processing areas and that these changes can profoundly alter the pattern of neuronal activation in response to experience.

It is no more than ensuring all illness is of biological creation and nothing to do with the Mind.

Question: Are you able to demonstrate your point?

Answer: Neuro Scientific research indicates that experience can actually change both the Brain's physical structure - anatomy and functional organization - physiology.

Question: That demonstrates nothing?

Answer: It does if one reads with their Mind instead of their Eyes the word; "Experience," demonstrates something other than the Brain is at work - Memories and the Mind.

Question: What does this mean? "As of 2014 neuroscientists are engaged in a reconciliation of critical-period studies, demonstrating the immutability of the Brain after development with the more recent research showing how the Brain can and does, change in response to hitherto unsuspected stimuli.

Answer: Like all Medical Science it somehow knows it is wrong - but not "why" and later or more funded research will allow them to question their earlier beliefs.

Nothing wrong in that.

But it does leave one to question "change in response to hitherto unsuspected stimuli."

Do they understand the meaning of this and more importunately are they able to do anything about it in relation to a Mind, Body or even a Brain illness.

Question: What is the meaning behind their comment?

Answer: Unsuspected stimuli must surely - if the Brain-Body is damaged or ill, be an event happened (A traumatic Event) this will surely, for an intelligent Person be seen as affecting the Mind not the Brain.

Neurobiology.

Question:  What is Neurobiology and is it of true value in understanding illness?

Answer: Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behaviour.

In addition, Neurobiology is a sub discipline of both biology and neuroscience.

Question:  But is it of true value in understanding illness?

Answer: It is suggested. "Neurobiology is - One of the fundamental principles of how neuroplasticity functions are linked to the concept of synaptic pruning, the idea that individual connections within the Brain are constantly being removed or recreated and is largely dependent upon - how they are used."

Thus the last seven words demonstrate and the outcome of treatment of their so-called Brain related illness - confirms this branch of scientific medicine is for money and kudos only and of no therapeutic value.

Question:  These words of yours appear harsh, can you substantiate them?

Answer: I never make such statements or even ask questions of Medical Science - if I have not already and to my own satisfaction, answered them.

"This concept is captured in the aphorism of "neurons that fire together, wire together"/"neurons that fire apart, wire apart," summarizing the theory."

"If there are two nearby neurons that often produce an impulse simultaneously, their cortical maps may become one."

"This idea also works in the opposite way, i.e. that neurons which do not regularly produce simultaneous impulses will form different maps."

Aphorism - from Greek aphorismos, "delimitation" is a way of expressing a general truth, principle, or astute observation and spoken or written in a memorable form.

Question: Ok, I accept you have substantiated your harsh words - but I do not understand the answer?

Answer: If one takes just three words from my earlier answer - which in reality was only from the framework of this discussion: Aphorism, May and Different it says; We are trying to believe (Aphorism) what we are saying, however we MAY change our Brain because we cannot understand why impulses, will, should or might become Different....

...Thus all is a General Truth not a Scientifically Proven Truth.

Cortical Maps.

Question: What are Cortical maps?

Answer: Cortical organization, especially for the sensory systems, is often described in terms of Maps.

For example, sensory information from the foot, projects to one cortical site and the projections from the hand, target another site. Read this as Brain Mapping.

As the result of this, somatotopic organization of sensory inputs to the cortex, cortical representation of the body resembles a Map - or homunculus.

A cortical homunculus is said to be a physical representation of the Human Body, located within the Brain.

Often referred to as a neurological "Map" of the anatomical divisions of the Body.

Confirmed with - There are two types of cortical homunculus; sensory and motor.

Question: When did medical science start exploring the Maps or the connection with the body?

Answer: It appears in the late 1970s and early 1980s, several groups began exploring the impacts of removing portions of the sensory inputs.

Question:  What if any were the intentions?

Answer: It appears the groups used the cortical map as their dependent variable.

They found and this has been since corroborated by a wide range of laboratories; if the cortical map is deprived of its input; it will become activated at a later time in response to other, usually adjacent inputs.

As long ago as 1984, studies involved the mapping of monkey hands before and after amputation of the third digit.

Before amputation, there were five distinct areas, one corresponding to each digit of the experimental hand.

Sixty-two days following amputation of the third digit, the area in the cortical map formerly occupied by that digit had been invaded by the previously adjacent second and fourth digit zones.

The areas representing digit one and five are not located directly beside the area representing digit three, so these regions remained, for the most part, unchanged following amputation.

This study demonstrates that only those regions bordering a certain area will invade it to alter the cortical map.

In the somatic sensory system, in which this phenomenon has been most thoroughly investigated, the mechanisms underlying this plasticity were traced.

Re-organization is not cortically emergent, but occurs at every level in the processing hierarchy; this produces the map changes observed in the cerebral cortex.

Again around 1990 studies relating to sensory experience, without pathological perturbation, to cortically observed plasticity in the primate somatosensory system, with the finding that sensory sites activated in an attended operant behaviour increase in their cortical representation.

Question: Will you sum this up for me this for me?

Answer: Yes it is reasonable to consider the researchers sat on their laurels content all Pain was Biological, the Brain was set in Plastic and nothing to do with the Mind.

Question: Are there any demonstrated values in 2015 - of the study of Cortical Maps?

Answer: Shortly thereafter, 1994 others made similar efforts in the rodent whisker barrel cortex; also somatic sensory system.

These two groups largely diverged over the years.

The rodent whisker barrel efforts became a focus for and great inroads were made in identifying the locus of change as being at cortical synapses expressing NMDA receptors and in implicating cholinergic inputs as necessary for normal expression.

Question: You were asked if there is any value, ok so I omitted treatments? And what is NMDA?

Answer: N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA receptor mimicking the action of glutamate - the neurotransmitter, which normally acts at that receptor.

However, the rodent studies were poorly focused on the behavioural end and as far back as 1999 and 2004 behavioural manipulations as causing a substantial impact on the cortical plasticity in that system were identified.

Question: Please stop being evasive and answer my question?

Answer: And in 2002, 2005 and 2006 cortical implants were used in order to study the evolution of plasticity in both the somatosensory and auditory systems.

Both systems show similar changes with respect to behaviour.

When a stimulus is cognitively associated with reinforcement, its cortical representation is strengthened and enlarged.

Question:  I expect evasive information from those who only profess to know but not from you?

Answer: Me evasive! One must surely not shoot the messenger for bringing the decades of findings into the Twenty First Century with; in some cases, cortical representations can increase two to threefold in 1–2 days at the time at which a new sensory motor behaviour is first acquired and changes are largely finished within at most a few weeks.

Control studies show that these changes are not caused by sensory experience alone: they require learning about the sensory experience and are strongest for the stimuli that are associated with reward and occur with equal ease in operant and classical conditioning behaviours.

Moreover - Behaviours are nothing to do with the Mind - are they.

Question: But are these finding of any real long-term treatment value?

Answer: No not in the slightest, all they demonstrate is - All illness of Biological cause.

Question: There is said to be an interesting phenomenon involving cortical maps? With the incidence indicated by Phantom limbs?

Answer: Phantom limbs are experienced by People who have undergone amputations in hands, arms and legs, but it is not limited to extremities.

Although the neurological basis of Phantom limbs is still not entirely understood it is believed that cortical reorganization plays an important role.

Moreover, there are surgeons who remove Perfectly good limbs because People feel they are not complete - with a Perfect limb?

Question: What is your view of this seemingly barbaric behaviour by the Patient and the Medical Professional?

Answer:  I feel any surgeon who carries out this procedure no matter how much the Patient protests or how large their fee - should voluntarily give up the coveted license to practice surgery.

And the Person told in no uncertain terms...

"...This is a process of your Mind from early life traumas and nothing to do with the desire to have a perfect limb removed.

The most tragic part of this for the Medical Profession is in confirms all illness is Biological and will bring about the demise of the Noble Profession.

Question: Was it not possible for you to just say, "they do not know?"

Answer: Of course - but would we not be just continuing the "we do not know syndrome" when we do.

How can this be considered Medical Science; Following the lead of historical findings researchers separated manifestations of neuroplasticity into adaptations that have positive or negative behavioural consequences.

For example, if an organism can recover after a stroke to normal levels of performance, that adaptiveness could be considered an example of "positive plasticity."

Changes such as an excessive level of neuronal growth leading to spasticity or tonic paralysis, or an excessive release of neurotransmitters in response to injury, which could kill nerve cells, thus would have to be considered "negative" plasticity...

...And then have the audacity of ignoring the Mind in favour of the Brain.

Question: Point taken? In addition are drug addictions and obsessive-compulsive disorders deemed examples of, "negative plasticity?"

Answer: One Doctor reported - the synaptic rewiring resulting in these behaviours is also highly maladaptive.

And in 2005, another study found that the effects of neuroplasticity occur even more rapidly than previously expected.

Question: Is there a value in research where Medical students are concerned?

Answer: Although it can be demonstrated, their Brains were imaged during the period when they were studying for their exams.

Where in a matter of months, the students' grey matter increased significantly in the posterior and lateral parietal cortex.

Sadly, when we take into consideration the Scientifically Proven fact - more People are ill as a percentage of the population in 2015 than ever - one would have to question the wisdom of such findings or using Medical Students brow beaten into believing a long-term failed profession - as study subjects.

Question: Are there any applications and example Treatment of Brain damage?

Answer: A surprising consequence of neuroplasticity is that the Brain activity associated with a given function can move to a different location; this can result from normal experience and also occurs in the process of recovery from Brain Injury.

Question: Is there an indication here they are trying to understand what you so often describe as Substitution (one disorder for another poorly treated) And do not understand at all?

Answer: Sadly, this is the truth of it.

Neuroplasticity is the fundamental issue that supports the scientific basis for treatment of acquired Brain injury with goal-directed experiential therapeutic programs in the context of rehabilitation approaches to the functional consequences of the injury.

The Adult Brain is not entirely "hard-wired" with fixed neuronal circuits.

There are many instances of cortical and subcortical rewiring of neuronal circuits in response to training as well as in response to injury.

Question:  What about solid scientific findings to support such findings?

Answer: The evidence suggest that neurogenesis - birth of Brain cells occurs in the adult, mammalian Brain and such changes can persist, well into old age.

However; the evidence for neurogenesis is mainly restricted to the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, but current research has revealed that other parts of the Brain, including the cerebellum, may be involved as well.

Question: I am able to see the use of the words "Other and "May," somewhat destroy any scientific value the findings should have had? But why?

Answer: The research demonstrates - In the rest of the Brain, neurons can die, but they cannot be created.

However, they continue; there is now ample evidence for the active, experience-dependent re-organization of the synaptic networks of the Brain involving multiple inter-related structures including the cerebral cortex.

Question: Is that a conclusion?

Answer: The specific details of how this process occurs at the molecular and ultra-structural levels are still - topics of active neuroscience research.

Question: Why is it when Neurons die new one cannot be created?

Answer: From a scientific point of view having the desire to only ensure illness is biological they would be blind to the reality - it is the Mind that instructs new connections in the Brain and will only create New Neurons if it is fitting with the processes of the Mind; for survival.

Question: What does this tell us? "The manner in which experience can influence the synaptic organization of the Brain is also the basis for a number of theories of Brain function including the general theory of mind and epistemology referred to as Neural Darwinism and developed by immunologists?"

Answer: If one accepts Theories as just that and are of no therapeutic value and add to the discussion - Darwin's main or fundamental theories were just plain WRONG.

Question: But the whole world including medical science revolves around Darwin's Theories - how can you say they were wrong?

Answer: When one considers the state of the art Medical Treatments today and their miserable failure to often even poorly manage illness, then it surely has to be accepted - all Medical Science is in the year 2015; is no more than a Theory or guesswork.

However; it is better said Darwin's Theories were not correct - rather than wrong.

Question: Apology accepted. How were Darwin's theories incorrect?

Answer: If one takes just the one that may be considered the bedrock of Darwin's findings: "Natural Selection" as the explanation of the. "Evolution of Life," the Or. "Survival of the Fittest" and with a Mind that sees - observes the Fittest or Strongest have no need to change, how can a species become fitter than Fit, or stronger than Strongest.

It is the weakest who have to survive, still today demonstrated in many countries with. "Women are not countable," by evolving their offspring into a stronger race and we must consider in this process "Illness is the process of Evolutionary Change;" although no one will ever be able to study this - as life does not last that long!

Question:  What direction is Medical Science able to take now?

Answer: As usual, a diversion to hide how little is really known.

With the concept of neuroplasticity being central to theories of memory and learning that are associated with experience-driven alteration of synaptic structure and function in studies of classical conditioning in invertebrate animal models such as Aplysia.

Aplysia is a genus (closely related) of medium-sized to extremely large sea slugs, specifically sea hares, which are one group or species of large sea slugs, marine gastropod mollusks.

This latter program of neuroscience research has followed from the ground-breaking work of a University College of Physicians and Surgeons.

Question: Who? first created "sensory substitution and Brain plasticity."

Answer: It appears Paul Bach-y-Rita, who passed away in 2006, was the "father of Sensory Substitution and Brain plasticity."

In working with a Patient whose vestibular system had been damaged - he developed Brain Port, a machine that "replaces the vestibular apparatus and will send balance signals to the Brain from the tongue."

Following the Patient use of this machine for some time, it was found no longer necessary, as they regained the ability to function normally.

Question: Surely, this is a good thing?

Answer: There is no question in the absence of solid knowledge of real value - anything that shows efficacy has to be considered and accepted.

However - can Plasticity really be the major explanation for this phenomenon.

Moreover is this really a satisfactory explanation; Because the Patients vestibular system was "disorganized" and sending random rather than coherent signals, the apparatus found new pathways around the damaged or blocked neural pathways, helping to reinforce the signals that were sent by remaining healthy tissues.

Bach-y-Rita explained plasticity by saying, "If you are driving from one location to another and the main bridge goes out, first you are paralysed.

Then you take old secondary roads through to the chosen location.

Then you use these roads more; you find shorter paths to use to get where you want to go and you start to get there faster.

Question: What can be concluded from the findings of Bach-y-Rita?

Answer: Nothing - it is all nonsense.

Question: Why is it nonsense?

Answer: He said - "These "secondary" neural pathways are "unmasked" or exposed and strengthened as they are used.

And concluded with "The "unmasking" process is generally thought to be one of the principal ways in which the Plastic Brain reorganizes itself."

Question:  I can understand the "Thought" part of your answer but that does not really explain why it is nonsense?

Answer: Surely we have to recognise when Medical Science uses the words: "Think" May" and "Thought" in their science and then Brain and not include the Mind as an activity in the whole process - there is something wrong with the science or it is just forward profit thinking.

Question:  I notice you have mentioned a Person by Name - not something you usually do?

Answer: No this is the truth of it - generally, this is because it is not my intention to embarrass our dedicated Medical Scientists.

However with a Person now deceased it is in admiration of their work now being sullied by later and should be better Medical Science - not worse.

Question:  Accepted, but feel sure your point of view must be challenged? Did not a group find; that if a small stroke - an infarction is induced by obstruction of blood flow to a portion of a monkey’s motor cortex, the part of the body that responds by movement will move when areas adjacent to the damaged Brain area are stimulated?

Answer: Of course I must be challenged if not how are we ever going to improve the health of People ill with multiple mysterious illness in 2015 on into the future!

However In JUST ONE study, intra cortical micro stimulation (ICMS) mapping techniques were used in nine normal Monkeys.

Some underwent ischemic-infarction procedures and the others, ICMS procedures.

The Monkeys with ischemic infarctions retained more finger flexion during food retrieval and after several months - this deficit returned to preoperative levels.

With respect to the distal forelimb representation, "post infarction mapping procedures revealed that movement representations underwent reorganization throughout the adjacent, undamaged cortex."

Question: Does not answer the challenge?

Answer:  Understanding the interaction between the damaged and undamaged areas provides a basis for better treatment plans in stroke patients.

Current research includes the tracking of changes that occur in the motor areas of the cerebral cortex as a result of a stroke.

Thus, events that occur in the reorganization process of the Brain can be ascertained.

Question: Still does not respond to the challenge?

Answer: This group is also involved in studying the treatment plans that may enhance recovery from strokes, such as physiotherapy, pharmacotherapy and electrical-stimulation therapy.

Question: Still does not respond to the challenge?

Answer:  Neuroplasticity is gaining popularity as a theory that, at least in part, explains improvements in functional outcomes with physical therapy post stroke.

Rehabilitation techniques that have evidence to suggest cortical reorganization as the mechanism of change include Constraint-induced movement therapy, functional electrical stimulation, treadmill training with body-weight support and virtual reality therapy.

Robot assisted therapy is an emerging technique, which is also hypothesised to work by way of neuroplasticity, though there is currently insufficient evidence to determine the exact mechanisms of change when using this method.

Question: Will you please respond to the challenge?

Answer: Surely, it is right and proper we had to go through all of the above, in order to demonstrate - from the very first challenge; all is Medical Science back to front thinking.

Question: Back to front Medical Thinking?

Answer: Yes, it is all very well and good Stimulating Monkeys Brains to have a stroke and then observing as one KNOWS THE CAUSE and the Body's biological response - but a total waste of time if one does not know the true cause - which is Scientifically Proven with every illness on the Planet.

Surely if one never knows the true cause of any illness and never creates definitive cures - Any Scientifically Proven label is only an Hypothesised Opinion - thus a self-defeating prophesy, based on insufficient evidence.

Question: Now I know why you do not knee jerk in order to answer a question? It is often made more complex by medical science.

Answer: Sadly, this is only the case.

Question: Does this further make your point? "A professor at a major research University, has been able to show; "how somatosensory area 3b and ventroposterior (VP) nucleus of the thalamus are affected by long-standing unilateral dorsal-column lesions at cervical levels in Macaque Monkeys."

Answer: Sure does if any major research centre "Thinks" or has "Thoughts" just one area of the Brain "May" be implicated in any disorder a Person may present as a Mysterious Disorder - then there is something wrong with their own Brain!

Confirmed by "Adult Brains have the ability to change as a result of injury but the extent of the reorganization depends on the extent of the injury."

And; The recent research focuses on the somatosensory system, which involves a sense of the body and its movements using many senses.

Continued with "Usually" when People damage the somatosensory cortex, impairment of the Body perceptions are experienced."

Question:  What if anything is this form of research attempting to show?

Answer: They are trying to see how these systems - somatosensory, cognitive, motor systems are plastic as a result of injury.

One of the most recent applications of neuroplasticity involves work done by a team of Doctors and researchers at a major University, with specialists who have been in the field for over three decades.

Question:  If we accept ischemic-infarction procedures or may we refer to it as Electrical Stimulation? is there an indication there are successful outcomes?

Answer: First, it is important we accept and consider - in the absence of anything better, then this process must be studied; It appears however, this is the first treatment in 40 years that has or is showing significant results in treating traumatic Brain injuries while also incurring no known side effects and being cheap to administer.

However - it is imperative true lack of success is recognised and challenged as to "WHY."

Question:  By what process did they come to this decision?

Answer: It appears the Doctor involved noticed that Female Mice seemed to recover from Brain injuries better than Male Mice.

Also in Females, it was noticed that at certain points in the estrus (ready to conceive) cycle Females recovered even more.

After lots of research, they attributed this difference due to the levels of progesterone.

The highest level of progesterone present led to the fastest recovery of Brain injury in these Mice.

Question:  But surely, this can be of no value as it must have been an induced injury by the very same scientists involved in the study?

Is there an implication as to why Female Mice recovered better than males?

Answer: Well spotted and quite correct made worse by the development of a treatment that includes increased levels of progesterone injections to give to Brain-injured Patients.

A perfect demonstration of Darwin's theory being wrong - Females are the procreators of life and if damaged will desire to ensure their Children do not grow up to suffer in the same manner - hence evolution is at work.

Question: What was the intention of increasing the levels of Progesterone?

Answer: It appears they thought. "Administration of progesterone after traumatic Brain injury (TBI) and stroke reduces edema (swelling,) inflammation and neuronal cell death and enhances spatial reference memory and sensory motor recovery."

Moreover; In their clinical trials, they had a group of severely injured Patients that after the three days of progesterone injections had a 60% reduction in mortality.

Question: All good stuff? How would they really know of improvements in mortality?

Answer: Surely, one cannot administer a medication for three days and then go back in time, repeat the same process on the same Patient or even a Mouse - to see if there is a different outcome. Therefore, this must surely be guesswork.

Question: If a Person was in a horrific car accident that left them with marginal Brain activity and according to the Doctors, they were one point away from being Brain dead.

Would you be for or against the Parents deciding to have their Son or Daughter participate in clinical trials - where they were given a three-day progesterone treatment.

Answer: Of course not - not only would in the absence of anything better be the only rule to apply, any therapeutic application that stands in the way of their Patient doing everything they are able to improve their life - is not a therapeutic application at all; it is Psychotic Control and for the therapist, not ever the Patient.

Surely, we all should be working together in order for a Person many years after an accident/incident to achieve an inspiring recovery, with no Brain complications and the ability to live a healthy - normal life.

Question: May we return to Scientifically Proven treatments derived from using animals and explore their true efficacy?

Answer: Or course. Whilst we have to consider there have been many studies on Animals in which beneficial effects appear to have been seen.

Surely it is outcome we are looking for in effective disease modifying treatments.

Question: Is there a suggestion you approve of Animals being used to study illness?

Answer: Based on the Scientifically Proven fact - we Humans, still in the year 2015 are unable to speak any Animal talk, thus are unable to extract the real truth of any such testing and still today not once has any form of testing let alone on Animals produced a disease modifying treatment - the results somewhat speak for themselves.

It is novel - but not of any real value in the overall scheme of things.

Therefore - I do not approve.

Question: Notwithstanding your answer? Is there a scientifically evaluated similarity in aged rats compared to those seen in youthful rats?

Answer: It appears within the studies it was demonstrated there are physiological differences in the two age groups; the model was tweaked for the elderly animals by reducing their stress levels with increased physical contact.

During investigative surgery, anaesthesia was kept at a higher oxygen level with lower overall isoflurane (anaesthetic) percentage and "the aged animals were given subcutaneous lactated ringers solution post-surgery to replace fluids lost through increased bleeding."

Question: Is there a hidden message here, you are able to see?

Answer: Yes, once again the noble blindness of the medical profession is unable to accept Stress (a Mind process) is a distraction from the reality - it is the Mind doing its work.

Seemingly confirmed when it was reported - The promising results of progesterone treatments in Animals "could" have a significant impact on the clinical management of Traumatic Brain Injury."

Question:  Is there a suggestion these treatments have been shown to work on Human Patients who receive treatment soon after the TBI.

Answer: It appears this is so.

Question: What is the current position of this interesting study?

Answer: One Doctor now focuses research on those Persons who have long-standing traumatic Brain Injury in order to determine if progesterone treatments will assist them in the recovery of lost functions as well.

Question: Knowing, how the Medical Profession can and often does turn on itself - are there any contradictions to this?

Answer: It appears a study published in a well-respected Journal in 2014 detailed the results of a multicentre well-funded phase III clinical trial of 882 Patients found that treatment of acute Traumatic Brain Injury with the hormone progesterone...

...Provides no significant benefit to Patients when compared with placebo.

Question: Why do you feel this is so?

Answer: Because of the back to front thinking of Medical Science combined with the rigorous belief that Animals will provide the answers and the Mind is not implicated.

Question: Given this information what if anything is now the Vision of Medical Science?

Answer: After decades in which the assumption that binocular vision, in particular stereopsis (seeing with two eyes,) had to be achieved in early childhood - or it could never be gained.

In recent years the successful improvements in Persons with amblyopia (lazy eye,) convergence insufficiency or stereo vision anomalies have become prime examples of neuroplasticity; binocular vision improvements and stereopsis recovery are now active areas of scientific and clinical research.

Question: Is this really forward or rear Vision?

Answer: Like always, we must take into consideration, "in the absence of later and better knowledge - a Person so disposed has a right to all the medical assistance available from their medical practitioners."

However to consider this process - one of Neuroplasticity is a non-starter, demonstrated by the use of their own words "are now active areas of scientific and clinical research."

Clearly demonstrating - the cause is not known and there is no known cure; an operation is not a cure, it is management.

Question:  Where if at all does the treatment of learning difficulties fit into Neuroplasticity?

Answer: A series of "plasticity-based computer programs known as "Fast For Word" have apparently been created.

Fast For Word - offers seven Brain exercises to help with the language and learning deficits of Dyslexia.

Question:  What does this tell us so far?

Answer: It confirms Neuroplasticity is only a way of attempting to confirm all illness is of Biological Cause.

Question: How if at all are you able to demonstrate this assertion?

Answer: The use of the word Dyslexia is the only demonstration required by their own findings is described as, "Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder is a Learning Disability characterised by - trouble with Reading despite normal Intelligence.

Question: How does that demonstrate your point?

Answer: Surely, it does not take the highest-ranking medical accolade to see these are all Mind processes, meaning prior learning and memory and thus nothing to do with the Brain.

Question: Is there other information to confirm your point?

Answer: Certainly is. In a recent study of experimental training, was done in adults to see if it would help to counteract the negative plasticity that results from age-related cognitive decline (ARCD.)

The training design included six exercises designed to reverse the dysfunctions caused by ARCD in cognition, memory, motor control and so on.

After use of the ET program for 8-10 weeks, there was a "significant increase in task-specific performance."

The data collected from the study indicated that a neuroplasticity-based program could notably improve cognitive function and memory in adults with ARCD. (Age-Related Cognitive Decline.)

Question: How does all of this confirm your point?

Answer:  Cognition is the set of all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge, attention, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision-making, comprehension and production of language, etc.

Human cognition is conscious and unconscious, concrete or abstract, as well as intuitive like knowledge of a language and conceptual like a model of a language. Cognitive processes use existing knowledge and generate new knowledge.

Therefore - by their own words everything is a Mind process and nothing to do with the Brain and Plasticity.

However as the Mind cannot be seen or tangible carved up or medicated it must by definition of the long-standing beliefs of the medical profession not exist - as it is not biological and is non-profit making.

Question: We spoke of Medical Science vision - but seemingly lost our direction, may we see our way back to this part of the discussion?

Answer: Brain-machine interface (BMI) is a rapidly developing field of neuroscience.

According to the results obtained so far - operation of BMIs results in incorporation of artificial actuators into Brain representations.

The scientists showed that modifications in neuronal representation of the Monkey's hand and the actuator that was controlled by the Monkey Brain occurred in multiple cortical areas while the Monkey operated a BMI.

In these single day experiments, Monkeys initially moved the actuator by pushing a joystick.

After mapping out the motor neuron ensembles, control of the actuator was switched to the model of the ensembles so that the Brain activity and not the hand that directly controlled the actuator.

The activity of individual neurons and neuronal populations became less representative of the animal's hand movements while representing the movements of the actuator.

Presumably, as a result of this adaptation, the animals could eventually stop moving their hands yet continue to operate the actuator.

Thus, during BMI control, cortical ensembles plastically adapt, within tens of minutes, to represent behaviourally significant motor parameters, even if these are not associated with movements of the animal's own limb.

The realism of this form of research is - if a learning is taking place, it is in the Minds of the very intelligent Monkeys - not the Brain.

Thus, will only earn great respect for another failure and much in the way of funding, moreover - will be of no value in the understanding of real Brain injury.

Question: What is real Brain injury?

Answer: Active laboratory University groups have independently shown that animals can control external interfaces in tasks requiring feedback; with models based on activity of cortical neurons and animals can adaptivity change their Minds to make the models work better.

Question: Surely, that is not a real Brain Injury?

Answer: No of course not, yet we had to examine the blindness of this research that only thinks of the Brain but cutely slips in the Mind as a subconscious mind action - they were not aware of.

 Question: What is Real Brain Injury?

Answer: Real Brain injury is a bit like Pain; which only comes in two types.

1. Pain, through high activity or even an impact - self-repairs requires no intervention.

2. Pain, which never repairs despite all available Scientifically Proven intervention.

Whereas Real Brain Injury Is:

1. An impact of varying intensity requires much evaluating of actual Biological damage of a very delicate organ of the body with scaled biological treatments - according to the findings.

2. An injury of varying intensity from either impact or other unknown sources - which defies biological treatment - because like all bodily injury, the Mind has stored the real cause as a Process of the Mind and all Body Chemical Activity and unless resolved runs the Person's life and cannot be chemically altered with medications.

Question: Are there any other Visions we should look at?

Answer: One group took the implants from a respected laboratory and improved it by changing the insulation from polyimide to parylene-c and commercialised them for sale.

Question: And that is vision?

Answer: It appears so - as these efforts are the leading candidate for the first Human trials on a broad scale for motor cortical implants to help quadriplegic or locked-in Patients communicate with the outside world.

Cannot but support this but surely if the Mind is not included it will have the same outcome as all Scientifically proven treatments - where the cause is not known and later, no known cure?

Question: What is or are? Sensory prostheses?

Answer: The use of technology to compensate for neurological deficit.

The field of neural engineering is relatively young over the past 30 years many researchers from the traditional engineering fields have devoted major portions of their careers to the development of implantable devices known as neural prostheses.

These efforts are exemplary of the multidisciplinary nature of bioengineering and have incorporated principles from a broad range of engineering fields, including electrical, mechanical and materials engineering as well as advanced theoretical and applied research in polymer science, electrochemistry and neuroscience.

The basic principle underlying all neural prosthetic devices is common: the artificial manipulation of the biological neural system using externally induced electrical currents with the goal of mimicking normal sensorimotor functions.

However, each application requires implantable hardware systems that are specific to the desired function and therein lay the engineering challenges.

Question: If for the point of discussion, we accept? - Neuroplasticity is involved in the development of sensory function?

Is it then fair to say? - The Brain is born immature and it adapts to sensory inputs after Birth?

Answer: Of course it is the correct thing to accept the Brain like the Body is born immature - surely if it were not the passage through the Pelvic Girdle, The Vaginal Canal and opening - would be more fraught - than it so often is.

However - It is only the corporate blindness of Medical Science that will not accept the Mind at any time in the process of life or better said ill health let alone post conception.

Where the reality is the Mind is fully functional from conception - if not just prior and is of FULL Maturity, requiring to learn nothing for secure running of its life, other than accommodate to the crude and so often negative attitude of significant Persons who should teach with Integrity and Wisdom but instead seek unwittingly to ensure the Child is born and kept in an Emotional Lead Jacket - to ensure it does not grow up to suffer in the same manner as the Parents or significant person's; who gave life to the Child.

Question: Does this confirm or deny what you have just said?

"In the auditory system, congenital hearing impairment, a rather frequent inborn condition affecting 1 of 1000 new-borns, has been shown to affect auditory development and implantation of a sensory prostheses activating the auditory system has prevented the deficits and induced functional maturation of the auditory system?"

Answer: It most certainly does confirm.

However - Due to a sensitive period for plasticity, there is also a sensitive period for such intervention within the first 2-4 years of life.

Consequently, in deaf children before speaking ability, an early cochlear implant as a rule allows the Child to learn mother language and acquire acoustic communication.

Question: I observed earlier you slipped in Locked in Syndrome; another medical mystery? - do you have a view on this?

Answer: In the absence of a case history or a Person so disposed to improve the understanding of this medical mystery one has to pull on other knowledge or experience.

Whether a Person is affected from Birth or at a later stage in life; we must first accept this is no more than a process of the Mind as a result of a trauma the Person could not remember/recall or at the time of creation there was too much going on for the Person's subconscious Mind to store at all, let alone for an super knowledgeable therapist to understand and guide the Person to recall and re store in a better logical and sequential order - thereby allowing the Mind to unlock the Body and alter the entire Body Chemistry involved in the locking process.

Question: Are you able to imply a point in time of creation of this medical mystery?

Answer: Whilst we must recognise every case must be examined on its merits, for my own satisfaction if I were presented with a case - I would dismiss my most potent and unbreakable rule of NOT TELLING and talk to the Person as though they completely understood and comprehended my comments - which of course they do.

And tell them a story (easing the not telling) of their creation - from when their Parents were Children, through to their conception, time in the womb and ultimate birth (the only provable fact) and how all of this irrevocable altered their entire body chemistry and stopped their Mind from being able to control the body in a natural manner - thus locked the Mind Brain and Body.

Question: Are you suggesting a Person Locked In could actually communicate with you?

Answer: My unique understanding of the Mind and its interaction with the Body via the entire Body Chemistry and the ability to deal with more symptoms than a Person is able to present - under the one treatment regime, tells me.

Yes they would completely comprehend everything I say (even if in truth they cannot, then I cannot be wrong) and indeed infer with my Eyes and Body Language and would be able to speak to me, using very subtle body movements. From Acorns Oak trees grow.

Question: Is the a part to play in Neuro Plasticity in Phantom limbs?

Answer: Whilst still so poorly understood it appears in order to better understand the existence of Phantom Limbs there have been studies it appears; to implicate Plasticity of the Brain with a diagrammatic explanation and use of a Mirror box.

Question: What is a Mirror Box?

Answer: The Patient places the good limb into one side of a box, say - the right hand and the amputated limb into the other side.

Due to the Mirror, the Patient sees a reflection of the good hand where the missing limb would be indicated.

The Patient thus receives artificial visual feedback that the "resurrected" limb is now moving when they move the good hand.

Question: May we explore this interesting concept some more?

Answer: Phantom limb is an experience of Phantom limbs or a phenomenon in which a Person continues to feel Pain a sensation within a part of their Body that has been amputated.

This is strangely common, occurring in 60-80% of amputees.

An explanation for this refers to the concept of neuroplasticity, as the cortical maps of the removed limbs are believed to have become engaged with the area around them in the post central gyrus.

In Anatomical terminology - a gyrus is a ridge on the cerebral cortex, generally surrounded by one or more depressions or furrows which creates the folded appearance of the Brain in Humans and other Mammals.

Because the Brain is confined to the skull - Brain size is limited these depressions and furrows create a larger surface area thereby allowing a larger cortical area and greater cognitive function to exist in the confines of a smaller scull.

This results in activity within the surrounding area of the cortex being misinterpreted by the area of the cortex formerly responsible for the amputated limb.

Question: After all these years of intense study into Phantom Limb Pain? What is the current thinking?

Answer: It appears the very best and current knowledge with the relationship between Phantom Limbs and Neuroplasticity is still a complex one.

Perhaps because in the early 1990s it was theorised (guessed) that Phantom Limbs were the result of cortical remapping.

However, in 1995 it was demonstrated that cortical remapping occurs only in Patients who have Phantom Pain.

This research showed that Phantom Limb Pain, rather than referred sensations was the perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization.

It appears the Mirror Box was created in order to makes sense Medical Science was at least doing something and the Phantom Limb was still Biological.

Question: Not too difficult to see why so little is known? - sort of goes round and around in circles does it not?

Answer: Sadly so.

Question: As a result of the above - are there any other explanations to hand?

Answer: Yes indeed. This phenomenon is sometimes referred to as maladaptive plasticity.

Question: Means?

Answer: If we do not know what we are talking about - we must sound as though we do.

Question:  Is there a value in experimenting with visual imagery?

Answer: In 2009 - a renowned Professor in the deep south of the world carried out some remarkable experiments in which they encouraged arm amputee subjects to use visual imagery to contort their Phantom Limbs into impossible configurations.

Four of the seven subjects succeeded in performing impossible movements of the Phantom Limbs.

Question: What is anything did these experiments suggest?

Answer:  This experiment appeared to suggest the subjects had modified the neural representation of their Phantom Limbs and generated the motor commands needed to execute impossible movements in the absence of feedback from the Body.

The authors stated that. "In fact, this finding extends our understanding of the Brain's plasticity because it is evidence that profound changes in the mental representation of the body can be induced purely by internal Brain mechanism - the Brain truly does change itself."

Question: Is it fair to suggest these experiments and the outcome - do not appear to suggest anything of value?

Answer: Yes, this is true and the use of the words Appeared, with Mental and Brain in the same sentence, confirming so.

Question: is there a conclusion to be drawn for this part of the discussion?

Answer: Yes, there is and feedback from the Body confirms it is all back to front Medical thinking.

Question: What do you mean by Back to Front Medical thinking?

Answer: Because every illness must be kept of Biological cause, even if the Brain is implicated - there always has to be, a feedback from the Body in some form or other.

Question: How can we evaluate that?

Answer: Even if a Body or Brain is damaged by impact - irrespective of the outcome - symptoms, the Mind will ALWAYS take control, even if it appears a Person is in a locked-in or vegetative state.

Question: Does Chronic Pain fit into this discussion?

Answer: Yes although Pain in any form is still a poorly understood Human situation, it is reported; Individuals who suffer from Chronic Pain experience prolonged Pain at sites that may have been previously injured, yet they are otherwise currently healthy.

This phenomenon is related to neuroplasticity due to a maladaptive reorganization of the nervous system, both peripherally and centrally.

Question: I can see the meaning behind your earlier comment of - it all has to be of Biological Creation with "Previously injured?"

Answer: This is the truth and this confirms so!

During the period of tissue damage, noxious stimuli and inflammation cause an elevation of nociceptive input from the periphery to the central nervous system.

Prolonged nociceptive from periphery will then elicit a neuroplastic response at the cortical level to change its somatotopic organization for the Painful site, inducing central sensitisation.

For instance, individuals experiencing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome demonstrate a diminished cortical somatotopic representation of the hand contra laterally as well as a decreased spacing between the hand and the mouth.

Additionally, Chronic Pain has been reported to significantly reduce the volume of Grey matter in the Brain globally and more specifically at the prefrontal cortex and right thalamus.

Question: What part if any does Inflammation play in any of this?

Answer: Inflammation is at the heart of every illness - even accident injury and is in response to a bodily trauma in the process of repair and restoration.

In addition - if the repair is not automatic the Mind will sustain the inflammation and appear to force it to attack the body.

Question: Why will the Mind sustain the inflammation? And attack the Body?

Answer: Because the damage is no longer in the Body - this is only for a few seconds whilst the Mind collates the information for storage.

Depending on the real cause of the injury, the Mind will make adjustments to the entire Body Chemistry - that is not reversible with any form of Brain Plasticity understandings, implants or medications.

Question: What is the outcome opinion - of the Professor involved in this study?

Answer: The suggestion appears to be - following treatment, these abnormalities in cortical reorganization and grey matter volume are resolved, as well as their symptoms.

Moreover - Similar results have been reported for Phantom Limb Pain, Chronic Low back Pain and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

Question: So I accept this is all Scientifically Proven, However when I read so much of Pain in its many forms with management being only of short-term duration it does somewhat leave one somewhat to ponder the real truth and indeed long-term outcome of these studies.

Answer: Surely if it were a Scientifically Proven Fact every Doctor in the world would be using it and Pain would no longer affect - if but in only one country, some 100 million of the population.

Question: Has? Meditation been implicated in Neuro Science and Neuro plasticity?

Answer: It appears there is research on meditation and a number of studies have linked meditation practice to differences in cortical thickness or density of grey matter.

One of the most well known studies to demonstrate this was led by a major university, in 2000.

Where a neuroscientist at the University led experiments in cooperation with the effects of Meditation on the Brain.

Question: Are there any results available?

Answer: The results suggest that the long-term or short-term practice of Meditation results in different levels of activity in Brain regions associated with such qualities as attention, anxiety, depression, fear, anger, the ability of the body to heal itself and so on.

These functional changes may be caused by changes in the physical structure of the Brain.

Thus it is once again nothing to do with the Mind - illness is all-biological!

Question: And Fitness and Exercise - are these implicated in this plastic stuff?

Answer: There is an understanding - Neurobiological effects of physical exercise on Neuroplasticity and neurogenesis...

In a 2009 study, scientists made two groups of mice swim a water maze and then in a separate trial subjected them to an unpleasant stimulus to see how quickly they would learn to move away from it.

Then, over the next four weeks - they allowed one group of mice to run inside their rodent wheels, an activity most mice enjoy, while they forced the other group to work harder on mini-treadmills at a speed and duration controlled by the scientists.

They then tested both groups again to track their learning skills and memory.

Both groups of mice improved their performances in the water maze from the earlier trial.

But only the extra-worked treadmill runners were better in the avoidance task, a skill that, according to neuroscientists, demands a more complicated cognitive response.

The mice forced to run on the treadmills showed evidence of molecular changes in several portions of their Brains when viewed under a microscope, while the voluntary wheel-runners had changes - in only one area.

Thus they concluded - results support the notion that different forms of exercise induce neuroplasticity changes in different Brain Regions.

With a professor of physiology and an author of the study, said. "Similar results have meanwhile been found for Humans."

Notice how they slipped in "Learning Skills and Memory into their script - but did they notice or even understand the implication of their inclusion.

Question: I have heard about Human echo-location? but do not know what it is - can you explain?

Answer: Human echo-location is a learned ability for Humans to sense their environment from echoes.

Question:Who uses it?

Answer: It is suggested by Medical Science this ability is used by Some Blind People to navigate their environment and sense their surroundings in detail.

Studies with Blind Patients, for example, suggest that the click-echoes heard by these Patients were processed by Brain regions devoted to - vision rather than audio.
In animals

Surely, we have to accept this is Scientific Nonsense to suggest - Some Blind People use this, whereas everyone including Animals and indeed plant life, use this in one form or another.

In 2014 a Noble Prize was awarded for the seemingly discovery of Brain Gridlines - leading me to write a response negating the findings and thus the award. Mind Brain Gridlines.html

Question: Where now?

Answer: Studies in 2010 and 2011 using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques have shown that parts of the Brain associated with visual processing are adapted for the new skill of echo-location.

Question: What is "Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging?

Answer: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures Brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

The technique relies on the fact that cerebral blood flow and neuronal activation are coupled, when an area of the Brain is in use - blood flow to that region also increases.

Question: Whilst FMRI sounds all very interesting has it any value in understanding illness and creating cures?

Answer: None at all - although as always it is important to accept in the absence of True Medical Science with cures, an ill Person has a fundamental right to well health as promised by the Medical Profession.

Question: What other Brain development and Neural development in Humans are being studied?

Answer: Researchers have decided - In a single life span, individuals as well as in animal species may encounter various changes in Brain morphology.

Many of these differences are caused by the release of Hormones in the Brain; others are the product of evolutionary factors or developmental stages.

Some changes occur seasonally in order to enhance or generate response behaviours.

Question: But surely, all of that is of the Mind - not the Brain?

Answer: And "May" confirms it as guesswork - thus cannot possibly be Scientifically Proven.

Question: So are we to understand - Seasonal Brain changes affects more than just Humans?

Answer: It appears the researchers believe - The change in Brain morphology for Spatial memory within the hippocampus is not limited to Humans - it is found in Birds and also affects some rodents and amphibians.

Question: What is Spatial Memory?

Answer: It is the Minds way of giving an awareness in the position in the space we occupy - if we did not have this we would not be able to navigate ourselves around - as indeed Birds and other Animals do when they travel many thousands of miles - without any hardware navigational aids. See Mind Grid Lines

Question: What are or is, the inhibitory nature of regions of the Brain - found in Humans?

Answer: Medical Science may have us believe, as a result of an external event (trauma) a Person would become inhibited. Or it is another word for Neuro Plasticity.

Question: If we look at how Medical Science changes words to suit themselves or explain the unexplainable - how or when did the word Plasticity come into use?

Answer: It appears Plasticity was first applied to behaviour in around the late 1800's as - The Principles of Psychology.

And the first person to use the term "neural plasticity" appears to have been a Polish neuroscientist.

Question: Given the central importance of Neuro-plasticity, an outsider could be forgiven for assuming that it was well defined and that a basic and universal framework served to direct current and future hypotheses and experimentation?

Would this assertion be correct?

Answer: Sadly, this is not the case.

While many neuroscientists use the word neuroplasticity as an umbrella term, it means different things to different researchers in different sub fields ... In brief, a mutually agreed upon framework - does not appear to exist.

Question:  What is the considered proposal - based on this information?

Answer: Exactly, - Around the 1970s, there was an accepted idea across neuroscience, with some exceptions, it was felt the nervous system was essentially fixed throughout adulthood, both in terms of Brain functions, as well as the idea that it was impossible for new neurons to develop after Birth.

The idea that the Brain and its functions are not fixed throughout adulthood was proposed in 1890 - although the idea was largely neglected.

The use of the word plasticity and neuroplasticity to describe changes in the nervous system were coined and proposed in 1966.

A clear and unambiguous demonstrating of back to front medical thinking.

Question:  How so?

Answer: So already - we are born old and grow to be of young age. there is clever!

Question: May we look back at Research and Discovery?

Answer: As long ago as 1923, experiments were conducted on rhesus monkeys - which demonstrated changes in neuronal pathways, which were concluded to be evidence of plasticity, although despite this, as well as further examples of research suggesting this...

...the idea of neuroplasticity - was not widely accepted by neuroscientists.

Question: So - is it fair to say; all this Scientific understanding is not worthy of the current accolade?

Answer: Further research of Brain dynamics in 1945, concluded, contrary to the activity of the projection areas, the "central" cortical mass - more or less equidistant from the visual, tactile and auditive (hearing) projection areas, would be a "maundering mass," rather unspecific or multisensory, with capacity to increase neural excitability and re-organize the activity by means of plasticity properties.

Question:  I am as lost as the researchers - on this?

Answer: Yes indeed. All is explained with the use of the word, "Equidistant."

Question: Really how?

Answer: The explanation as defined by Equidistant = A point is said to be equidistant from a set of objects if the distances between that point and each object in the set are equal.

In two-dimensional Euclidean geometry the locus of points equidistant from two given - different points, is their perpendicular bisector...

...Is in the year 2015 - as clear as Mud!

Question: Surely, there are some fine examples to explain the rational of thinking in this research?

Answer: Yes there are and it appears this is it; "It was given as a first example of adaptation, to see upright with reversing glasses in an accepted experiment and specially, several first-hand Brain injuries cases in which it was observed dynamic and adaptive properties in their disorders, in particular in the inverted perception disorder.

Further stating - that a sensory signal in a projection area would be only an inverted and constricted outline that would be magnified due to the increase in recruited cerebral mass and re-inverted due to some effect of Brain plasticity, in more central areas, following a spiral growth.

Question: Was there any significant evidence produced post 1945 and after from notable scientists.

Answer: It is reported In the 1960s, Paul Bach-y-Rita invented a device that allowed Blind People to read, perceive shadows and distinguish between close and distant objects.

This "machine was one of the first and boldest applications of neuroplasticity."

The Patient sat in an electrically stimulated chair that had a large camera behind which scanned the area, sending electrical signals of the image to four hundred vibrating stimulators on the chair against the Patient’s skin.

Question: Sounds of novel interest - is there any significant evidence to support the outcome?

Moreover - was there within this revelation, really a demonstration of Neuro plasticity?

Answer: The six subjects of the experiment were eventually able to recognize a picture of the super model Twiggy.

It must be emphasized that these people were congenitally Blind and had previously not been able to see. Bach-y-Rita believed in sensory substitution; if one sense is damaged, your other senses can sometimes take over.

He thought the skin and its touch receptors could act as a retina using one sense for another.

In order for the Brain to interpret tactile information and convert it into visual information, it has to learn something new and adapt to the new signals.

The Brain's capacity to adapt implied that it possessed plasticity.

He thought, "We see with our Brains, not with our Eyes."

This is not evidence - it is all nonsense. And although he can be forgiven, as Medical Science was then still in its infancy with the last comment by - Paul Bach-y-Rita confirming it as so.

In addition if the participants were congenitally Blind; how could they recognise an artificially imposed image of the super model Twiggy!

Question: How does that comment confirm what he said?

Answer: No one ever sees with their Eyes or Brains - it is the Mind that instructs the Brain to focus the Eyes on an object to see it.

If the Mind does not desire to "See," it will not allow the Eyes to override this instruction. Brain and Eyes are therefore - Reactive not Proactive.

Everything we ever do as an Animal - Human or otherwise is stored in the subconscious Mind as a Picture - not words.

Question: Surely, there must have been a driving force to make Bach-y-Rita to study Brain rehabilitation.

Answer: Yes indeed and as Creativity is the Brakes on Madness - he was surely inspired/driven by the tragic stroke in 1958; that left his Father paralysed.

His brother, also a physician, worked tirelessly to develop therapeutic measures, which were so successful that the Father recovered complete functionality by age 68 and was able to live a normal, active life - which even included mountain climbing.

"His father’s story was first hand evidence that a ‘late recovery’ could occur even with a massive lesion in an elderly Person."

Question:  If we apply the Blindness of the Medical Profession to see further than the next research funding pay out - what can be gleaned or concluded from this seemingly revelation in treatment outcomes?

Answer: If we take into consideration as a mark of fairness - 1958 started on the 1st January and 1965 the year the Father died, ended on the 31st December.

Therefore; if the stroke was on the 1st January 1958 and Pedro died on the 31st December 1965 he survived some Eight years.

Whilst we must not attempt to question the quality of life as described by his surviving and very eloquently qualified Sons, we can question he only lived eight more years and died age 76, is it possible there were other factors at play here rather than the so-called Neuroplasticity of the Brain.

Or was this the time when surviving Five years following an illness - was deemed a cure!

Question: Again in favour of fairness; was more evidence of this possible Brain reorganization found with the Sons later work.

Answer:  One study involved stroke Patients who were able to recover through the use of Brain stimulating exercises after having been paralysed for years.

It is helpful the importance of interesting, motivating rehabilitation: ‘Under conditions of interest is understood, such as that of competition - the resulting movement may be much more efficiently carried out in a homely environment rather than with dull routine training in a laboratory.

Question: What is the outcome in Clinical Practice today?

Answer:  This notion has led to motivational rehabilitation programs being used today.

Question: Has the concept of this work achieved the support it deserves?

Answer: It appears including the findings in hippocampal plasticity, brought interest not only from scientists, but also engaged the public and media worldwide.

Question: So does it follow from the pioneers of neuroplasticity over the decades there truly has been made success of the most ambitious claims for this field of medicine?

Answer: Although of course one must take into consideration Medical Science has made some incredible findings and indeed claims - which one surely has to question, as still today there are no definitive cures for any illness - that Brain exercises may be as useful as drugs to treat diseases, as severe as schizophrenia.

But only if we ALL accept the Mind is at work and the Brain its agent distributes the necessary biological action for the body to react - post Brain injury.

Question: So is this an attempt to confirm that plasticity exists from cradle to the grave and that radical improvements in cognitive functioning - how we learn, think, perceive and remember are possible, even in the elderly?"

Answer: Or is it better said it confirms in the long-term, nothing of any value as it fails to recognise as demonstrated above it is the Mind not the Brain - doing all of the remembering.

Question: So it appears to suggest once again although the very substance of this work was or is exciting the medical profession has once again somewhat lost the plot?

Answer: This work as I see things was most seriously and negatively affected by a crucial discovery made when working with kittens.

Question: Kittens? How so?

Answer: The experiment involved sewing one eye shut and recording the Cortical Brain maps.

Where it was seen the portion of the kitten’s Brain associated with the shut eye was not idle, as expected.

Instead, it processed visual information from the open eye. It was "…as though the Brain did not want to waste any ‘cortical real estate’ and had found a way to rewire itself."

Question: What if anything did this imply?

Answer: With childlike excitement it implied - neuroplasticity during the critical period.

However, it was further argued - that neuroplasticity could occur beyond the critical period.

Question: Was there an actual or perceived outcome from this?

Answer: It appeared the first encounter with adult plasticity came when the researchers were engaged in a post-doctoral study with others - Or was this just an entry to further funding or recognition for their efforts.

Question: You can be so negative in your comments?

Answer:  It appears that way for sure - however, the experiment was based on observation of what occurred in the Brain when one peripheral nerve was cut and subsequently regenerated.

Two scientists micro mapped the hand maps of Monkey Brains before and after cutting a peripheral nerve and sewing the ends together.

Afterwards, the hand map in the Brain that was expected to be jumbled was nearly normal.

This was a substantial breakthrough.

Finely asserting, "if the Brain map could normalize its structure in response to abnormal input, the prevailing view that we are born with a hard-wired system had to be wrong...

...The Brain had to be plastic.

Question: Much as maybe but where after all this discussion does - that leave Talking Cures views?

Answer: It is imperative we remember this paper came in response to a question posed and is an Objective and Subjective view of the mass of information Medial Science has compiled over many decades; yet not been at all successful in creating a proper understanding of the cause and cures to eradicate - any illness.

Thereby, by default - establishing the Mind as the true cause of all illness and the Brain and Body, simply agents of the Mind, is in 2015 - a necessity.

In addition and in an objective or perhaps strange way we can contradict all Neuroscience and dismiss its worth as of novel interest only and not in the least of real long-term scientific value.

The above is clearly demonstrated - by viewing, a hand or other limb distorted, from what is considered normal, to the diagnosed - Arthritis type conditions.

As a clear and unambiguous demonstrating of what may appear to be Brain Plasticity - created by the Mind.

In addition - from the heady days of Brain mapping the areas of the Brain, said to be responsible for our emotive reactions that in real terms or outcome of successful treatments - has never once proven its worth.

To Brain Plasticity where the input referred to as life - appears to adjust the shape of the Brain mapping.

If the Mind is not implicated or even considered at all, then the outcome of any study or treatments will only be of short-term value (symptom management) as the Mind will only seek to dismiss such interference and demonstrate who really controls the shape our body is going to remain or become.

Whether that be of well health or ill health is only dependent on the mass or quality of the information we collect from conception through to death - we use to run our life with.

Whilst it must be recognised, the framework for this paper is in the public domain and credit given to the authors;

Peter Smith Talking Cures asserts the right to be recognised as author and Intellectual ©Copyright holder of his contribution to this document Dated 1st November 2015.

Thus, this document is free to use as an education or Patient led assistance in its entirety.

Talking Cures is a Twenty First Century Medicine...

...able to treat multiple symptoms of Mind and Body in a Person.

Via Telephone 01702 603030 or Skype. Talking.Cures

Criticisms and comments however harsh are welcomed and warmly responded too and seen as an accolade far greater than a United Kingdom Knighthood or Noble Prize.

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